The eruption of Changbai Mountain volcano is equivalent to the simultaneous explosion of 38000 atomic bombs. What about Yellowstone?

When it comes to volcanoes, we are used to forgetting, but it is precisely because of this forgetting that many people know little about volcanoes, and even ignore that Tianchi volcano in Changbai Mountain is one of the most famous volcanoes in the world. Because it is an active volcano, it hides the danger of eruption. At present, many geologists and volcanologists around the world have done a lot of research on Tianchi volcano in Changbai Mountain, and have made great progress Some important clues have been obtained.

The picture shows the Tianchi Lake in Changbai Mountain

The Changbai Mountain volcano creates an ecological spectacle, and the records of two eruptions in history are reliable

When it comes to Changbai Mountain, many people will think of it as a fairyland like “Tianchi”. Changbai Mountain is located in the eastern end of Eurasia, Southeast of Jilin Province, China, and is the place with the richest species resources in China. Throughout the Changbai Mountain, it is the boundary mountain between China and North Korea, winding in the northeast. The Changbai Mountain has a vast territory, and the volcanic vertebral body area accounts for nearly 8000 square kilometers. Due to its rich ecological resources and lush vegetation, it also enjoys the reputation of “human and ecosystem” named by the United Nations. In the eyes of Chinese people, Changbai Mountain is not only rich in ginseng, mink and pilose antler, but also the birthplace of Manchu.

After long-term research, relevant geologists found that as early as 600 million years ago, Changbai Mountain was a vast ocean. After the surface of the earth’s crust was constantly expanding due to the movement of the earth’s internal material, there was a “orogenic” movement. This blue ocean gradually withdrew from the land, and the surface re emerged from the seabed. With the change of the external environment, the crust broke and uplifted for many times, and many basaltic magma erupted from the cracks in the crust. Gradually, there was the history of Changbai Mountain volcanic eruption. In the process of continuous eruption and dormancy, a lot of eruptive materials accumulated in the crater. The Tianchi lake became the center of the volcanic cone. After weathering and corrosion, the landform gradually changed, and finally created the beautiful and mysterious ecological spectacle of Changbai Mountain.

The picture shows the prospect of Changbai Mountain

In addition, there is an old legend about the formation of Changbai Mountain. The God of water and the God of fire fought against each other. After the defeat of the God of water, he was angry and bumped into the pillar of heaven. After a strong impact, the Tianzhu collapsed, the Tianting collapsed, the Tianhe water flooded into the world, and the people were displaced. In order to save the people from this natural and man-made disaster, Nu Wa refined a huge mountain in the huge crater of flames and magma under the Wuji cliff, and left a gap at the top of the mountain to let the Tianting The water from the Tianhe river flows into the gap, which is the Tianchi Lake we see today. Of course, this is just a legend, there is no way to verify.

The geomorphic structure of Changbai Mountain is very complex, which can be divided into three geomorphic units: volcanic cone, piedmont inclined lava plateau and lava platform. Changbai Mountain volcano is magnificent. There are different opinions about the eruption of Changbai Mountain volcano in history. Some people say that it has erupted three times, and others say that it has erupted four times. However, according to the relevant historical records, only two eruptions of Changbai Mountain volcano are very credible. Basaltic magma erupted from the mantle and continuously upwelling along the huge cracks in the crust, breaking through the crust, causing the eruption of Changbai Mountain volcano . In the first eruption, all the ejected volcanic materials increased the mountain by more than 200 meters. At the same time, some small parasitic craters were formed around the crater.

The largest volcanic eruption in the world in the past 2000 years

Changbai Mountain volcano is a complex volcano. In 1199-1201, there was a violent eruption in Changbai Mountain. It is said that this eruption is the largest in the world in 2000 years. But how powerful is this eruption?

1. Volcanic ash falls into Japan

According to Internet records, the eruption of Changbai Mountain was not only the largest since 2000, but also when it erupted in 1199, even the ash fell as far as the sea of Japan and northern Japan. Xiaobian checked the nearest distance from Tianchi to Japan on the map, which was 907.9 kilometers. What a power it was.

2. Historical records of Koryo

According to the records in the history of North Korea, when the Changbai Mountain volcano erupted on a large scale, there was a thunderous sound, followed by a red black strange gas, which was a mixture of volcanic ash and volcanic gas. Due to the huge external force of volcanic eruption, the pressure changed greatly, resulting in the phenomenon of pouring smoke, extending to about 455km of the branch Songyue — Huling. In Nara Prefecture, Japan, 1100 kilometers away from the volcano, the volcanic ash rain was recorded for two consecutive days. In addition, in the northeast of the Korean Peninsula, it was found that the well water changed color and began to boil. The sound of boiling well water was like a cow’s cry, and the sound lasted for more than ten days.

There are detailed records in relevant historical documents

“In the afternoon, the heaven and the earth suddenly have dark moths. Sometimes they are red and yellow. They have the same smoke and smell all over the room. If they are in the oven, they can’t bear the heavy heat. After the fourth watch, it stops, and when it comes to the court, it is covered with rain and dust, just like those who burn clam shells


The picture shows the historical record of Changbai Mountain volcano eruption

3. Eruption grade

Volcanic eruption is a natural phenomenon, widely distributed in the earth, its power is much greater than the atomic bomb and earthquake. Volcanic eruptions are divided into eight grades,

Vei-1 belongs to the small-scale volcanic eruption level. Compared with the previous Italian volcano Stromboli Island, there is a boom almost every few minutes. It is said that the volcanic eruption of vei-6 is equivalent to 38 million atomic bombs exploding at the same time. If the volcanic eruption level is increased by one level, it is more than 10 times of the previous level, then vei-8 is enough to destroy the earth.

In modern human history, the largest volcanic eruption recorded in detail is the eruption of Tambora volcano, with the eruption grade of vei-7. According to statistics, at least 60000 people were killed in the eruption, and the sound of the eruption can be heard 2500km away from Tambora volcano, which is 50000 times as powerful as the atomic bomb dropped by US troops in Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

The picture shows the eruption level of the volcano

4. The eruption power of Changbai Mountain volcano

If the eruption of Changbai Mountain is compared with that of Tambora volcano, the eruption of Changbai Mountain, which is known as “the most powerful volcano since 2000”, is comparable to that of karakato volcano. Some scientists have speculated that the volcanic eruption of Changbai Mountain and Tambora belong to the same level 7 volcanic eruption, but the power is relatively weak. We say that the volcanic eruption of vei-6 is equivalent to the simultaneous explosion of 3800 atomic bombs,

The volcanic eruption of Changbai Mountain in that year was at least equivalent to the simultaneous explosion of 35000 atomic bombs.

Changbaishan Tianchi crater

More powerful Yellowstone, USA

According to geological research, the famous Yellowstone volcano in the United States has erupted once in its history. According to the previous introduction, once Yellowstone volcano erupts, its power belongs to vei-8. What does the volcanic eruption of vei-8 look like?

The last eruption of Yellowstone volcano in the United States was 640000 years ago. According to the inference, when the volcano erupted at that time, the maximum height of the ash from Yellowstone volcano was 30000 meters. At that time, the whole western United States was covered with volcanic ash, and finally the super crater “Yellowstone volcano” was formed. After the volcanic eruption, almost the whole sky is covered with volcanic ash, and the earth’s temperature drops suddenly, which is a devastating blow to all living things. What’s more terrible is that Huangshi volcano will erupt periodically every 600000 years or so.

Some experts predict that if Huangshi volcano erupts in the next few decades or hundreds of years, it will seriously threaten all living things on the earth, and even destroy the whole earth instantly. Some geologists have found that in recent years, huangshishan volcano has been releasing heat, and even the surrounding suet roads have been melted by the heat of the underground. If you don’t step on some solid looking land, you can easily fall into the hot underground. If the Huangshi super volcano erupts, the whole European continent will be greatly affected. The most direct harm to the people is the residents within 1000 kilometers, who will not be spared the death. The temperature of the whole earth will drop by an average of about 10 degrees.

The picture shows the crater of Yellowstone volcano in the United States

Is there any danger that Changbai Mountain volcano will erupt again?

1. Changbai Mountain volcano enters “dormant state”

There is a problem in the field of Geology: the larger the scale of a volcano eruption, the longer the cycle of its re eruption. Because volcanic eruption needs enough magma, when more magma accumulates, it will break through the pressure eruption of the crust to a certain extent. In other words, the larger the scale of volcanic eruption, the longer the time of underground magma supply. After a large-scale volcanic eruption, the cycle of its re activity is much longer than 10000 years. For example, when we go to an amusement park to take a roller coaster, the steeper the slope, the faster the roller coaster will slide, and the more exciting it will bring us. Large scale eruption of volcano is like a huge steep slope. Magma is like this roller coaster. The steep slope is large, and the climbing time of roller coaster is relatively slow. When climbing to the top of the steep slope, it will slide instantly, and the speed is very fast.

Now the Changbai Mountain volcano has not died, but has just entered a “dormant state”, which is also known as a dormant volcano and a volcano in a long-term static state. At the same time, it can also be understood as a sleeping volcano, because it has left the crustal movement zone, and has suspended all activities at present. However, once this dormant volcano enters the crustal movement zone again, it will have the opportunity to erupt again.

This is a hypothetical map of Changbai Mountain volcano

2. If Changbai Mountain volcano erupts again, can it be predicted in advance?

What external factors can affect the eruption of Changbai Mountain volcano? First of all, it depends on whether there are frequent active magma sacs under the volcano and how active they are. If the magma in the magma sacs develops to a certain extent and is affected by pressure, it will be possible to erupt. However, we can only detect the state of the magma sacs under the Changbai Mountain volcano through geological exploration. If huangshishan volcano has some precursors before its eruption, will Changbaishan volcano also have some?

We all know that it takes time, place and scale to predict earthquakes. Similarly, only one factor is needed to predict volcanoes, and the location is OK. When geologists predict volcanic eruptions, they usually set various monitoring networks around the crater or magma sac, so as to achieve real-time monitoring. The time interval of earthquake monitoring is relatively short. We have just finished monitoring the earthquake, and the earthquake will occur in less than five minutes or less than ten minutes. It is said that it will happen sooner or later, but the volcano is far from it. From the precursor to the eruption, it can last about one year, and the shortest time is a few months. Because the shallowest magma sac is about 10 kilometers away from the ground, it takes a long time for a volcano to erupt. Unlike an earthquake, it can instantly produce geological fracture and mountain deformation. Compared with earthquakes, volcano monitoring is not difficult, but from the perspective of volcanic eruption, the continuous change of magma sac activity is the biggest challenge.

The picture shows the volcano monitoring device

Generally speaking, Changbai Mountain volcano is still likely to erupt. As for when it will erupt, geologists have no final conclusion. They have to say that this volcano is like a sleeping tiger, the king of the forest. Sooner or later, it will wake up. The only thing we human beings can do is to protect the ecological environment and cherish the people around us. Don’t wait for the real future of the disaster to have regrets!

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