This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.
Human civilization has a history of more than 5000 years. If you know something about the history of human civilization, you will find that the history of human civilization is actually a history of war. From ancient times to the present, the wars within human beings have never really stopped, and wars cannot be separated from the use of various weapons.
In the war of primitive civilization, people used wooden sticks and stone tools. Later, iron ware came into being. Later, gunpowder was invented in China. Since the birth of gunpowder, the mode of war has been constantly upgrading. For cold weapons, the weapons made of gunpowder are undoubtedly very powerful.
At that time, which country had strong gunpowder manufacturing technology would occupy an absolute advantage in the war. With the continuous development of human civilization, the weapons made of gunpowder are no longer the most powerful weapons of human beings. However, in the later period of World War II, the explosion of atomic bomb made us re recognize what is a terrible destructive weapon.
Atomic bomb and gunpowder weapons are two kinds of weapons. They have no comparability in power. At the end of the Second World War in the last century, the United States directly dropped two atomic bombs on Japan, so that Japan could only surrender unconditionally. It can be seen how terrible the power of the atomic bomb is. It is precisely because of this kind of magic weapon that many countries began to study the atomic bomb after World War II.
The power of today’s atomic bomb has changed greatly from that of the beginning, which is not at the same level at all. Is it easy to get the scientific theory of making atomic bomb? The answer is yes. If you search the Internet for some information about the principle or manufacturing process of atomic bomb, you can easily get it. In fact, the scientific theories related to the atomic bomb are no secret in the scientific circle.
The scientific principle of the atomic bomb is so easy to get, so we have a worry, that is, if someone makes it privately, it will bring great crisis to mankind. So is this worry necessary? In fact, it is totally unnecessary. If the atomic bomb can be easily manufactured by understanding the principles and manufacturing methods, then the relevant theories of the atomic bomb will not become public knowledge.
Even if you ask a high school student, or even some excellent junior high school students, they can popularize the theory of atomic bomb. It can be seen that the various scientific theories contained in the atomic bomb are not secret. Since we are not afraid that these theories will become universal knowledge, it shows that the manufacture of the atomic bomb is far more difficult than we thought.
In fact, it is true that the theory of atomic bomb originated from Einstein’s mass energy equation E = MC ^ 2. I believe that everyone is very familiar with this equation. It realizes the unity of mass and energy, and the loss of mass will be released in the form of energy. This is the core theory of the atomic bomb. The lost mass of the atom is released in the form of energy in the process of exploding, which produces the power of destroying the sky and the earth.
According to this formula, we know that every 1000 kg of mass loss can release the power equivalent to 10 billion tons of TNT explosive. Now that we know the principle of the atomic bomb, can we make it? Obviously, it is impossible. The mass loss of the atomic bomb comes from the fission or fusion of the atomic nucleus, but the atomic nucleus is very stable. It requires very high technology to make it lose mass and release energy.
The principle of the atomic bomb was no longer a secret after Einstein proposed the mass energy equation. At that time, many countries in the world wanted to build an atomic bomb based on this principle, but why did the United States succeed in the end? At that time, the most powerful country in the world was not the United States, but Germany.
There are many famous scientists in Germany, such as Heisenberg, one of the founders of quantum mechanics, who is responsible for the German atomic bomb project. In addition to Heisenberg, Germany also had some of the best scientists in the world at that time, such as Planck, Bonn, Hahn and so on.
But even such a powerful Germany, with so many excellent scientists, did not produce an atomic bomb. At that time, Britain and France also joined in the research and development of the atomic bomb. The leaders were all the great masters of the scientific community at that time. Even so, they finally found that they could not manufacture the atomic bomb with their own strength. Finally, they chose to join hands with the United States to gather the strength of many countries to finally make the atomic bomb come into being.
Why is it so difficult to make an atomic bomb? In terms of raw materials, the manufacture and development of any weapon cannot do without materials. Gunpowder is used for gunpowder weapons, while uranium 235 is used for atomic bombs. This is a radioactive element, and its reserves on the earth are very small.
Uranium 235 needs to be extracted from uranium ore, while the abundance of isotope 235 in natural uranium is only 0.72%. To make an atomic bomb, we need more than 90% uranium. To achieve this purity, we need to extract uranium ore, which is the same as extracting gold from gold mines.
However, it is not easy to extract uranium from uranium ore. The main methods are electromagnetic separation, gas diffusion and thermal diffusion. The principles of these technologies are no secret. At the same time, plutonium 239 is also needed for the atomic bomb as raw material, and it is very difficult to obtain plutonium 239.
Therefore, at that time, many countries knew the principle of the atomic bomb and the specific manufacturing methods, but they were limited by the materials and could not succeed. Even now, we can basically say one, two, three, four about the principles of the atomic bomb, but with these principles alone, it is still impossible to succeed without materials. What’s really difficult to make an atomic bomb is the acquisition of raw materials.
As long as you have one hundred kilograms of uranium 235 with 99% purity, an ordinary machinery factory can produce nuclear explosive devices. This is equivalent to our steamed bread technology. You can get it by searching the Internet, but you can’t make steamed bread without white flour.
It can be seen that if any technology wants to be applied to practice, theoretical knowledge is on the one hand, and other aspects need to be able to keep up. In the 21st century, human science and technology are changing with each passing day. Compared with the last century, earth shaking changes have taken place. But if we analyze it carefully, you will find that the basic principles behind these technologies in the 21st century are basically derived from the basic theories put forward by the great scientists in the last century.
Without those basic theories, science and technology in the 21st century can not achieve a leap. From this point, we can also see the importance of basic scientific theory. Although with basic theory, it may not be possible to turn it into a real scientific and technological product, without it, no science and technology can be realized.
At present, human exploration of the universe is limited by the speed, and can not really achieve interstellar navigation. The core is that there is no new great basic theory about speed. Scientists’ conjecture that space jumping, curvature navigation, wormhole shuttling and so on can enable human beings to realize interstellar navigation, but how to turn these conjecture theories into basic theories with formulas is a big problem that human beings need to face at present.
That’s one of the reasons why scientists really want to get in touch with alien civilizations. If human beings can contact and communicate with an interstellar civilization, then in the view of interstellar civilization, the backward scientific theory may be advanced science in the human world. For example, we don’t know how to realize the basic theory of curvature navigation, but in the interstellar civilization, it may be something that can be easily searched on the Internet.
As long as we have the guidance of basic theory, we will have the direction of research and exploration. Just like the realization of the atomic bomb, it is precisely because of the guidance of Einstein’s mass energy equation that it can become a reality and become the most powerful weapon of mankind.