The second “star rarity” visit, “Borisov” is constantly approaching the earth

This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.

There are innumerable galaxies in the vast universe, and the galaxies that human beings live in are called the solar system. The space outside the solar system can be called interstellar space, and there are also innumerable stars and galaxies in the vast interstellar space.

In the vast universe, in addition to most of them have their own fixed orbit, there is also a kind of wandering celestial bodies, they do not have their own fixed orbit, but constantly wander in the interstellar space, sometimes through the various galaxies. Among the numerous stray interstellar objects, comets are more common and very beautiful.

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Comets are composed of water ice, dust and other materials. In the process of interstellar wandering, they condense too much water ice, so in the process of fast moving forward, especially in the process of constantly approaching stars, they will emit a lot of water ice and other materials. These materials form a long tail behind them, which is very spectacular and beautiful, so ancient people also called comets The bad guy.

The solar system is also a galaxy that comets like very much. We can often observe some comets passing through the earth, and most of these comets belong to the solar system, that is, they come from the Kuiper belt at the edge of the solar system or the Oort Nebula beyond. However, there are fewer comets from outside the solar system.

The first interstellar object to visit the solar system is the “scout star” in 2017. Its strange shape and obvious acceleration when it disappears in deep space make people have many speculations about its origin. A well-known astronomer at Harvard even thinks that “scout star” may be the product of some kind of alien intelligent life.

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The second interstellar comet has arrived in the solar system and has been observed by the Hubble Space Telescope. Scientists named the star “rare star” Borisov.

“Borisov” was first captured by Hubble telescope in August this year. In October, NASA released the dynamic image of this mysterious celestial body. At this time, it is still far away from us. Ordinary astronomical telescopes still can’t capture it. According to the calculation of scientists, it will arrive at perihelion on December 8, which is exactly at the position closest to the sun, about 2 astronomical units away from the sun. At this time, the true face of the interstellar comet can be observed more clearly.

According to previous observations, the nucleus of Borisov’s comet is only about 1.6 km, but the length of its tail is 14 times longer than the diameter of the earth. It will “brush past” the earth on December 28, when it will be the closest to the earth. “Borisov” works on interstellar wandering objects. Its speed is naturally very fast. When it approaches the sun, its trajectory is slightly skewed due to the sun’s gravity, but its speed still reaches 100000 miles per hour.

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It’s not easy to capture images of comet Borisov from a long distance. Only a powerful telescope like Hubble can observe it. Of course, when it enters the solar system and gets closer and closer to the earth, other telescopes can also observe it. Scientists hope to eventually trace the source of the comet, but it is very difficult, because Borisov may be a semi permanent wanderer, constantly jumping from one galaxy to another.

Comets can be said to be a kind of celestial bodies that scientists are very interested in. The reason is that these comets are not in a fixed orbit, but come from far away, especially from interstellar comets, which come from far away interstellar space outside the solar system. They may have some mysteries of extrasystem space.

Another important purpose for scientists to study comets is to uncover some ancient mysteries of the earth, especially the origin of life. Although it is not so easy for us to see some wandering comets now, in the early days of the formation of the earth, there were a lot of comets in the inner galaxy at that time because the solar system was just formed and unstable.

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Some of these comets came from the Oort Nebula outside the solar system, while others came from outside the solar system. If so many comets enter the inner galaxy, they will inevitably hit the earth or other planets. And the comet is first of all a huge water tanker, if it hit the earth, it will leave a lot of water resources to the earth. So scientists have been speculating that a lot of water resources in the early days of the earth may have come from the impact of comets.

Moreover, scientists have many doubts about the origin of life on earth. Some people think that life on earth originates from the earth itself and has nothing to do with the outside world. However, some scientists believe that the comet impact may not only bring abundant water resources, but also bring the seeds of life. That’s why there will be abundant life species on earth and the birth of human beings.

If the seeds of early life on earth were brought about by the impact of comets, it means that Venus and Mars, which are also in the habitable zone, may have given birth to life at a very early time. The reason is that in the early days of the solar system, more comets entered the inner galaxy. They would not only hit the earth, but also Venus and Mars. They may also have brought the seeds of life to Venus and Mars.

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According to scientists’ decades of exploration and discovery of Mars, it is believed that long ago Mars was not what it is now, but a blue planet as beautiful as the earth. At that time, there were a lot of water resources and life on the surface. But later, I don’t know what happened, which made the ecological environment of Mars change so much. The same is true of Venus, which may have been a beautiful planet long ago, with water and life on its surface.

If scientists can detect traces of water in Venus in the future, the origin of the earth’s water can be determined to be from comets. Because Venus is closer to the sun, there can be no water molecules in the impossible space, so Venus is unlikely to produce water resources on its own. If there was a lot of liquid water on the surface of early Venus, the only possibility is that it was caused by comet impact.

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