Since the big bang, a variety of celestial bodies have been formed. In addition to our common stars and planets, there are also some mysterious and powerful celestial bodies beyond people’s imagination, such as black holes, neutron stars, pulsars and so on.
In the vast universe family, the mass is the most important. The larger the mass, the stronger its gravity, and the more celestial bodies it can influence. In the past, people always thought that stars had the largest mass in the universe, so they could control a galaxy and let a large number of planets and other small planets around it.
However, it was later discovered that compared with black holes and neutron stars, the mass of stars is really nothing. Black hole, needless to say, is the overlord of the universe. Its super gravity can devour stars. What we are going to introduce to our friends today is neutron star.
I believe many people are familiar with neutron stars. Like black holes, they are super massive objects, and they are also the most exciting discoveries in the 20th century. It not only opened up a new field for human to explore nature, but also had a profound impact on the development of modern physics. It became one of the four major discoveries of astronomy in the 1960s.
Black hole is the most mysterious celestial body in the universe. Up to now, scientists only know its existence, but they don’t know its essence at all. Moreover, black hole seems to have no obvious physical structure. If we really want to say its physical structure, it may be the singularity with infinite mass and infinitesimal volume at the center. Therefore, black hole can be said to be a zero volume object It’s a celestial body.
Unlike black holes, neutron stars have an obvious solid structure, and their density is surprisingly high. Like black holes, neutron stars are formed at the end of stellar evolution after supernova explosion due to gravitational collapse. Supermassive stars form black holes after supernova explosion. Massive stars form ultrahigh-density neutron stars at the end of stellar evolution.
The reason why neutron star is called this name is also because the matter that makes up it exists in the form of neutrons. Due to the huge gravitational effect, the matter on the neutron star can no longer maintain its atomic structure. Electrons and protons combine to form neutrons, which are closely arranged to form a neutron star. Scientists estimate that the density of neutron star matter can reach about 1 billion tons in one cubic centimeter, which is equivalent to the mass of a mountain on earth.
According to the chandraka limit and Oppenheimer limit, the mass of the neutron star is between 1.44-3 times of the mass of the sun, so it can be estimated that the radius of the neutron star is between 10-20 km. It can be seen that the neutron star is not big. Although it is small, its mass is surprisingly large. Naturally, its gravity is also super large. In addition to black holes, neutron stars are the absolute overlord in solid objects.
In addition to the super density, another characteristic of neutron star is its super fast rotational speed. It can be said that there is no celestial body in the universe whose rotational speed can be compared with that of neutron star. Generally, the rotation speed of neutron stars can reach hundreds of cycles per second, and the fastest neutron star can reach 2000 cycles per second.
Some people may say that the rotation speed of a neutron star is so fast that it can rotate thousands of cycles per second, so does the speed of its surface reach the speed of light? I believe many people know that the speed of light is the fastest speed in vacuum, but this speed can only be achieved by photons without mass, and the speed of other mass objects can only be infinitely close to this speed of light. So the mysterious and powerful neutron star in the universe, can its surface speed reach the speed of light?
Let’s take the fastest rotation speed of the neutron star discovered at present, 2000 cycles per second, as an example to calculate. Take the fastest rotation speed of the neutron star, 2000 cycles per second, and multiply it by its maximum size with a radius of 20 km to see what the linear velocity near the equator is? The answer we can easily calculate is about 250000 kilometers per second. And the speed of light is 300000 kilometers per second. It’s close to the speed of light, but it doesn’t reach the speed of light. It seems that powerful neutron stars can’t break the law of speed limit of light.
Of course, the rotation speed of a neutron star is 250000 kilometers per second, which is infinitely close to the speed of light. This speed is only the maximum speed in the theoretical state. In fact, the rotation speed of a neutron star can reach 2000 cycles per second, even thousands of cycles per second. The normal rotation speed of a neutron star is only a few hundred cycles per second. Even so, the surface linear speed of a neutron star is also very low It can reach about 20% of the speed of light.
From the neutron star, we think of the singularity in the center of black hole. Since the origin of neutron star and black hole is similar, they are all from the evolution of massive stars to the supernova explosion at the end of the period, then neutron star is a super-high density object formed by neutrons. Will the singularity in the center of black hole also be composed of matter similar to neutron star? It is possible that the material composition of singularity is more complex, but it may not be an infinitesimal object, but an object whose volume is much smaller than that of neutron star, but whose mass is much larger than that of neutron star.
The smaller the volume and the larger the mass, the faster its rotation speed will be. The rotation speed of the neutron star can reach the speed of sublight, so the rotation speed of the singularity object in the center of the black hole may reach 99.99% of the speed of light. It is because of its infinitely close to the speed of light that a gravitational vortex is formed around it, forming the black hole as we know it.
Of course, this is just our guess. If we want to really understand what the center of a black hole is, we may only go into the black hole. It’s not easy to realize this wish. It will take mankind to work hard for countless years. Perhaps we can understand some of the mysteries of black holes by studying neutron stars. We can see neutron stars as enlarged versions of the central singularity of black holes, and their properties may be very similar in some ways.
Because of its strong density, neutron star has become the strongest celestial body in the universe except black hole. Generally speaking, neutron star does not run around and has stable orbit. But there are always exceptions. Scientists have also found wandering neutron stars in the universe. Once such neutron stars become wandering tianxiuyi, their speed will exceed that of wandering planets and stars.
Once a neutron star becomes a stray object, it may not be so good for other objects on its way. Although its volume is small, its mass is as big as a star, so its gravity is also very strong. Once it wanders by a celestial body, it may produce gravitational traction on the celestial body and change its orbit.
If it happens to have a celestial body in front of it on its wandering Road, the celestial body, whether it is a star or a planet, will be in bad luck. If a planet collides with a neutron star, the neutron star will be intact, but the planet may fall apart. If a star collides with a neutron star, the star may not be destroyed like a planet, but the powerful impact force can still accelerate the nuclear fusion inside the star, and the star may explode at this time.
The powerful explosive force can affect the whole star system, and the planets close to the star may be destroyed by the explosion of the star. This kind of scene is also described in some science fiction works. In the interstellar war, a civilization directly bombards the star through the speed of light bomb, so as to achieve the goal of destroying the civilized planet. Even if a neutron star hits a star, it won’t do much damage. This is the advantage of ultra-high density, even if the neutron star hits the black hole, the black hole may not tear the neutron star.
Of course, for neutron stars, we can only observe them from a long distance. Human science and technology have no ability to observe near neutron stars. Only when human beings have realized the technology of light speed flight or even super light speed in the future, can they hope to go to neutron stars for observation. Perhaps after human beings become a powerful interstellar civilization in the future, relying on strong scientific and technological strength can also transform the neutron star to become the most powerful weapon of human civilization.
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