The moon is the only natural satellite of the earth. Since ancient times, people have different feelings for the moon. In ancient China, there are many beautiful poems and legends about the moon. In many unofficial historical records, the moon is covered with a mysterious veil.
With the progress of human science and technology, after the appearance of astronomical telescopes, human beings can finally see part of the true face of the moon. At this time, people found that the moon is actually a very barren planet, which is not as beautiful and mysterious as described in myths and legends. However, because the moon’s rotation and revolution are the same, the moon always faces the earth on one side and the back We can’t see it, because when we use astronomical telescopes, we can only see the front of the moon, but we don’t know what’s on the back.
So is the back of the moon the same as the front? When human beings walked out of the earth, they began to explore the moon. However, most of them focused on the front side of the moon. They knew nothing about the back side of the moon. The first time that human beings saw the back side of the moon was in 1959. They first saw the back side of the moon through the “moon 3” satellite launched by the Soviet Union, but it was only a remote view. No lander ever landed on the back side of the moon Check. This invisibly also casts a mysterious veil on the back of the moon.
Later, the U.S. manned landing on the moon was only on the front side, not on the back side. Therefore, human beings only know a very vague situation about the real situation on the back side of the moon, and a clearer understanding needs to be realized by landing on the back side of the moon. So who will be the first country in human history to land on the back of the moon? The answer is now known, and that is China.
At 2:23 a.m. Beijing time on December 8, China successfully launched the chang’e-4 probe with the long march 3B carrier rocket at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center, opening a new journey for China’s lunar exploration. Chang’e-4 is with the dream of mankind, landing on the back of the moon, began to carry out a variety of exploration and experiments on the back of the moon. This is the first time that human beings have landed on the back of the moon, which is no less significant than the manned landing on the moon in the United States 50 years ago, and the mystery of the back of the moon will soon be revealed.
Since human beings can’t see the back of the moon, there are many legends about the back of the moon. Some people say that there are alien bases on the back of the moon, planes that disappeared during World War II, three alien bodies and the remains of spaceships. These later proved to be rumors. Although human beings only took a very vague picture of the back of the moon, they also had a general understanding of the back of the moon. The back of the moon is actually similar to the front. It is also a barren surface with many craters. The landing site chosen by chang’e-4 this time is a huge crater.
Why did previous human probes choose to land on the front rather than on the back of the moon? The main problem is communication. Because the moon is always facing the earth, the back of the moon blocks the communication signals sent by the earth. Without communication, the probe will not be able to get in touch with the earth, lose the command of the earth, and it is impossible to land safely on the back of the moon.
If chang’e-4 wants to land on the moon successfully, it must first solve the problem of communication. How to solve the problem of communication between the probe on the back of the moon and the earth? Chinese scientists have thought of using relay satellite, that is, placing a relay satellite at an appropriate position between the moon and the earth. It can see the back of the moon and the earth at the same time. In this way, the signal sent from the back of the moon can first interrupt the satellite, and then feed back to the earth. Naturally, the signal sent from the earth is the same, first through the interrupt satellite, and then transmitted to the back of the moon On the detector. In this way, the communication between the back of the moon and the earth is realized.
After solving the communication problem, the problem of chang’e-4 landing on the moon has been solved for most of the time. Because the moon has no atmosphere and its gravity is small, the difficulty of the probe landing on the moon is relatively small. What tasks will chang’e-4 perform after landing on the back of the moon? The main tasks are as follows. Lunar orbit ultra long wave astronomical observation microsatellite, lunar micro ecosystem science payload, lunar relay laser ranging project.
1、 Lunar orbit ultra long wave astronomical observation microsatellite
When the relay satellite “Queqiao” was launched on May 21, 2018, two microsatellites developed by Harbin Institute of technology, named “Longjiang 1” and “Longjiang 2”, were carried and launched using the remaining capacity of cz-4c carrier rocket. Two microsatellites were equipped with one ultra long wave detector to demonstrate and verify key technologies of deep space formation flight in lunar orbit, carry out ultra long wave astronomical interferometry, and carry out exploratory research on ultra long wave all sky image acquisition, radio spectrum measurement, ultra long wave radio activity observation of the sun and planets in the system.
One of the microsatellites is also equipped with a miniature optical camera developed by Saudi Arabia to carry out Earth Moon space imaging. Unfortunately, one of the small satellites, longjiang-1, failed to achieve the planned formation observation when it arrived at the lunar orbit. But the “longjiang-2” sent back the Chinese version of the “earth rises” photo, which is very beautiful.
2、 Lunar micro ecosystem
On board the lander was a vehicle weighing about 3 The lunar micro ecosystem, which contains plant seeds and insect eggs, constitutes a simple ecosystem. It verifies the principle of photosynthesis of plants under the condition of natural sunlight on the lunar surface, observes the growth of animals and plants under the condition of low gravity on the lunar surface, accumulates the technology and experience of building space life support system, and popularizes biological knowledge to the public. This is also the first time that human beings have done such biological experiments on the moon, which is of great significance for exploring some problems of human life on the moon in the future.
3、 Lunar relay laser ranging
The relay satellite is equipped with a 1.6 kg single 17 cm large aperture hollow pyramid reflector, a ground 0.5 m diameter laser transmitting telescope and a 1 m diameter laser receiving telescope to carry out laser ranging between the moon and the relay satellite. It is estimated that the one-way ranging error is better than 15 mm.
The project will realize the first pure reflection laser ranging experiment beyond the Earth Moon distance in the world, provide orbit calibration data for chang’e-4 relay satellite, and provide technical verification for the future lunar laser ranging scientific experiment and the development of the next generation lunar laser reflector. Before that, we only realized laser ranging over the Earth Moon distance on the detectors of the United States and the Soviet Union.
Of course, chang’e-4 has landed on the back of the moon far more than three times. This is just a few of the main tasks, and there will be other tasks to be carried out. It will stay on the back of the moon for a long time, possibly longer than that of Yumian, and it is very possible to stay on the back of the moon for more than three years. Chang’e-4 will also carry out a series of explorations on the back of the moon. This is the first time that human beings have landed on the back of the moon. Unlike many explorers on the front, there are also a lot of garbage left by human beings on the front of the moon, as well as the flag of the United States that landed on the moon. The back is very clean, and there are no other human creations except chang’e-4.
Many people may be more concerned about whether there will be amazing discoveries on the back of the moon, such as alien bases, alien spaceships, etc. I believe that chang’e-4 will also explore. If there is an alien base or some alien building on the back of the moon, I believe that chang’e-4 will be able to find it. However, according to the vague observation of space probes in the past, no man-made buildings have been found on the back of the moon. Maybe they are too far away to see clearly. This time chang’e-4 landed on the back of the moon, they can see very clearly whether there are any man-made buildings. I believe they will also find out.
If chang’e-4 really finds some civilized artifacts on the back of the moon, it will be a great discovery that will shock the world and be recorded in manned history. We also hope that there will be different great discoveries on the back of the moon. Chang’e-4 has landed on the back of the moon for the first time in human history. I believe that in the future, Chang’e will also land on the back of the moon for the first time. I just don’t know what Chang’e will be at that time. I hope it won’t be too far away. We are proud of chang’e-4, China’s aerospace industry and being a Chinese.
Guys, do you think chang’e-4 is great? Is China Great? Welcome to leave a message below to discuss and express your opinions.