The sun has been burning for 5 billion years. Will it go out in the future? The answer may be unexpected

This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.

The earth is a beautiful planet of life. There are not only millions of kinds of life, but also intelligent human beings. Why can the earth be a planet of life? The main reason is that the earth has all kinds of conditions for the birth and evolution of life.

In these conditions, we often say that water is the source of life. Without water, there will be no birth of life on earth, so water accounts for a large proportion of life on earth. Is water the most important thing for life on earth? In fact, for life on earth, the sun is the most fundamental thing.

All life on the earth can not survive without the care of the sun. Even the dark creatures living under the earth will also be affected and cared by the sun. Without the sun, there would be no birth and evolution of life, and human beings could not live as freely as they do now.

Before human beings walked out of the earth, our understanding of the sun was very lacking. At that time, our understanding of the sun was a burning fireball, and we thought that its combustion was similar to those ordinary chemical combustion on the earth. However, as human beings enter the era of science and technology, with the help of science and technology out of the earth, we have more knowledge of the sun.

Now we all know that nuclear fusion reaction is always going on inside the sun. Its combustion is a kind of nuclear fusion reaction, and the basic fuel required is the universal hydrogen element in the universe. The sun has been burning for 5 billion years through nuclear fusion reaction, bringing light and warmth to the whole solar system.

The earth’s plants are also growing through photosynthesis, which produces oxygen and becomes the basis for the survival of surface organisms. Human beings need to breathe oxygen, and oxygen comes from the photosynthesis of plants, so from this point of view, there is no way for human beings to leave the sun.

However, with the continuous improvement of our understanding of the universe, we find that stars are not eternal, they also have their own lifespan. The lifespan of stars varies according to their mass, ranging from tens of millions to tens of billions of years. As a yellow dwarf, the sun is the middle mass star in the star family, with a lifespan of about 10 billion years.

Now our sun has been burning for 5 billion years, and in another 5 billion years, its internal hydrogen will be consumed, and then the sun will go to the end of its life. After the lifetime of a star reaches, it will not disappear completely in the universe, but will be transformed into another kind of celestial body, which can be transformed into white dwarf, neutron star or black hole according to its mass.

No matter what kind of celestial body a star transforms into, it will no longer carry out nuclear fusion and lose its original properties. The end of stellar life also means the end of stellar system. If habitable planets with life exist, they will be destroyed.

Seeing this, many people may say that the future fate of the sun has been doomed. In 5 billion years, mankind will lose the solar system and the home that has existed for a long time. So will the fate of the sun really come to an end in five billion years? In fact, the answer may be unexpected.

It’s true that under normal circumstances, stars in the universe will continue to consume all the hydrogen in them, and then they will continue to expand and go to the end step by step. This fate is doomed in the ordinary star system, but is the solar system an ordinary star system? Of course not.

The solar system is not an ordinary galaxy, because it gave birth to the life planet earth, and also evolved the intelligent life human. When human beings enter the road of scientific development, it also means that we have begun to explore the mysteries of the universe.

In theory, everything in the universe does not leave the scope of science, whether it is the origin of the universe or the evolutionary fate of stars, it is restricted and guided by science. Science is the core of the evolution and operation of all things in the universe. As long as we can master the ultimate science, we can master the fate of the universe and change some rules of the universe, such as the end of the life of stars.

In essence, a star is a huge nuclear fusion reactor, which is transformed into helium by the continuous fusion of hydrogen, releasing powerful energy in this process. Helium will continue to fuse and eventually evolve into heavy elements such as iron. There are two main reasons why stars come to the end of their lives. One is that the internal hydrogen element is less and less, and finally consumed.

Another reason is that more and more heavy elements are formed in the process of star fusion. These two reasons determine that the life span of the sun is only 10 billion years. If we have a way to solve these two factors, theoretically, the stellar sun can go on forever.

The first factor is hydrogen, the basic fuel of nuclear fusion. Hydrogen is the most common substance in the universe. It was first formed at the beginning of the big bang, and the largest quantity is hydrogen, accounting for more than 90% of the whole universe.

Therefore, hydrogen is not scarce in the universe. As long as our scientific and technological strength reaches a certain level, there will be methods and technologies to continuously inject fuel hydrogen into the sun. In addition, we have eliminated all kinds of heavy elements formed by nuclear fusion by means of science and technology.

From the outside of the sun, we constantly inject hydrogen into the sun, and from the inside, we constantly clean up the heavy elements formed by fusion. With the help of such technology, will the sun go to destruction? The possibility is very small, as long as the sun does not go out, life on earth can survive.

Many people may say that this is a fantasy. No matter how powerful the scientific and technological strength is, it can’t be achieved. If you think so, it’s a big mistake. Compared with the more complex and mysterious things in the universe, the scientific mystery of stars is not particularly difficult. As long as human beings master the technology of nuclear fusion, they will soon be able to fully understand what’s going on with stars.

The end of science is theology. When science reaches the end, it is possible to create the universe, let alone keep the stars moving forever. As long as the scientific and technological strength is strong enough, we can solve the problem of a small star sun, and let it live together with the universe forever.

With the appearance of human beings in the solar system, the fate of the future will probably be completely different from that of other stellar systems. With the advent of the life span of other star systems, they continue to end. With the help of human technology, the sun can achieve a longer life span even if it cannot live forever.

Compared with the threat of stars to the future of mankind, the contradiction within mankind is the greatest threat to human civilization. Once there are major changes within us, such as the outbreak of nuclear war, the fate of the earth and mankind may end earlier. Even in the future, if human beings become an interstellar civilization, interstellar wars may break out inside, which will lead to the retrogression of human civilization and even disappear completely in the universe.

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