There are three huge craters on the earth’s surface, each of which has brought great disaster to the earth

This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.

The earth has a natural satellite, the moon. When we observe the moon through astronomical telescopes, you will find that there are countless large and small craters on its surface. Through the discovery of a large number of craters on the moon, we have more knowledge of the space of the solar system beyond the earth. We know that the seemingly peaceful solar system is not safe at all. It is not easy for the earth to survive for 4.6 billion years in such a space environment.

The solar system is a galaxy with a large number of asteroids. Some of these asteroids are in low earth orbit, and some are in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. There are more than 100000 asteroids here. In addition to the asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt on the edge of the solar system has incalculable asteroids. In the outer interstellar space of the Kuiper belt, there is the more unfathomable Oort nebula, in which the number of asteroids and comets can not be estimated.

It can be seen that the solar system is actually a galaxy surrounded by many asteroids and comets, and it is a great and lucky thing that the earth’s life can complete the continuous progress and evolution in such a dangerous environment and finally give birth to intelligent life. When humans walk out of the earth, through observation, we find that the earth is so lucky, thanks to two meritorious officials, one is Jupiter, the other is the moon.

Jupiter is in front of the earth by its strong mass, which blocks most asteroid impacts for us. The moon is beside the earth, which also attracts some asteroids to impact on it by its strong mass. That’s why we see so many craters on the moon.

Even so, the earth still can’t avoid being hit by asteroids, but most of the impact traces have been erased by time, and what can be preserved until now are craters left by some large asteroid impacts. At present, there are three huge craters on the earth’s surface, each of which has brought great disaster to the earth. Let’s learn about these three huge craters.

1、 Hicksourub crater, located in Mexico, is an oval shape with an average diameter of more than 180 km. Through the detection of the crater, scientists found that it was formed by the impact of a super comet with a diameter of more than 10 kilometers, about 65 million years ago.

I believe many friends can’t help thinking of the mass extinction of dinosaurs 65 million years ago when they saw it 65 million years ago. Yes, the impact time of this crater coincides with the extinction of dinosaurs, that is, with the fifth mass extinction.

When scientists determined the age of the crater, they also made a new guess about the extinction of dinosaurs 65 million years ago. Scientists believe that 65 million years ago, a comet with a diameter of more than 10 kilometers hit the earth, and the huge impact force released up to 5.0 × 10 ^ 23 joules of energy, equivalent to more than 90 trillion tons of TNT explosive. The explosive power is equivalent to 6 billion Hiroshima atomic bombs.

Such a strong impact energy attracts earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, and makes a lot of dust enter the atmosphere, completely covering the sun, changing the global climate, causing nuclear winter. Without sunlight, a large number of plants died, a large number of herbivores died, a large number of carnivores died, and the earth entered the ice age, dinosaurs gradually died out in the case of starvation.

2、 Wilkes crater, this crater is located in the east of Antarctica, 1.6 kilometers below the ice. As early as the 1960s, some scientists suggested that there might be a large crater under the ice sheet in Wilkes. Later, satellite and radar images confirmed the existence of the wilkestei crater.

Through satellite radar detection, it is found that the wide band of wilkestei crater is about 480 km, and its diameter is more than 240 km, which is much larger than that of hicksourub crater. Since the impact of the Chicxulub crater caused the fifth mass extinction 65 million years ago. So the bigger impact that caused Wilkes crater may also bring great disaster to the earth at that time, so what is the disaster?

Through the research and exploration of wilkestei crater, scientists found that it was formed in 250 million years. At that time, the diameter of the asteroid that hit the earth reached more than 50 km, which was five times as large as the asteroid that caused hicksourub crater. Such a huge asteroid impact on the earth, must have formed a huge destructive force at that time, causing a greater disaster, so what kind of disaster did its impact bring to the earth?

Scientists first thought of the fourth mass extinction, about 250 million to 203 million years ago, the earth ushered in the largest mass extinction event, which lasted about 50 million years and changed the face of the earth. At that time, there was only one supercontinent on the earth, but later the supercontinent began to split and form the current six plates.

The division of plates has triggered global earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions have brought more serious mass extinctions. This mass extinction event has caused 96% of the species on the earth to be extinct, almost bringing the complete end of life on the earth. Scientists have been exploring the cause of this great change. We must know that the force needed to completely split the earth’s continent must be very huge. Such a huge force may come from the sky, and the biggest possibility is the asteroid impact. The discovery of wilkestei crater confirmed scientists’ Conjecture and also found the cause of the fourth mass extinction.

3、 Friedburg crater, located in Central South Africa and southwest of Johannesburg, has been formed for more than 2 billion years. It is the oldest crater found on the earth, with a radius of 190 km. According to scientists’ measurements, the meteorite came from the impact of a comet or a planet. At that time, the impact speed reached 40000 to 250000 kilometers per hour, which can be said to witness the largest energy release on earth.

The asteroid or comet that caused the crater must also be very huge. However, since it is 2.1 billion years ago, scientists do not know what great changes and effects the impact brought to the earth at that time. And now the crater has become a place for people to live. There are 550000 people living here.

Through the earth’s three huge craters, we understand that the earth has always been in danger. Even if the front is blocked by Jupiter and the side is protected by the moon, the earth still has no resistance in the face of a huge asteroid impact. 65 million years have passed since the impact of the giant asteroid that caused the extinction of dinosaurs.

No one knows when the earth in the future will again be hit by an asteroid with a diameter of more than 10 kilometers. It may be very soon or very long. In any case, the probability that the earth will not be hit by an asteroid in the future is basically zero. In the face of an asteroid impact with a diameter of 10 km, there is nothing we can do with the current human technology.

The only way to avoid the sixth mass extinction caused by asteroid impact in the future is to develop science and technology rapidly, only when the power of science and technology is more powerful. We have advanced technology to intercept asteroids, so that asteroids can not pose a threat to the earth, then humans and the earth will be really safe. Therefore, scientists are not only monitoring the trend of asteroids outside the earth, but also actively studying and exploring asteroid interception technology. We expect that the asteroid impact will come later, waiting for the real realization of human interception of asteroids.

Guys, what do you think of this? Welcome to leave a message below to discuss and express your opinions.

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