Now we all know that the greenhouse effect will lead to the melting of glaciers in the north and south poles, which will lead to the rise of sea level, but we don’t know another reason for the melting of glaciers in the South Pole. A joint research team of the British Antarctic survey used airborne ice radar to observe the 5000 square kilometers area at the bottom of the Antarctic ice sheet, and found that the ice layer at the bottom of the Antarctic ice sheet is melting, leading to the melting of the Antarctic ice sheet It seems that a layer of “lubricating oil” has been smeared on the ice sheet. The melting water under the ice sheet is likely to cause the glacier to “slide” into the sea floor. The scientific research team continued to study and found that the melting phenomenon at the bottom of Antarctic glacier is caused by abnormal geothermal energy, and the heat released from the whole Antarctic bottom has even reached 75% of that released by Yellowstone Park! So what is the reason for the abnormally large amount of heat under the Antarctic ice?
What’s the secret at the bottom of the ice sheet
Ice sheet refers to the land area covered by a large area of extremely thick ice. In order to detect what the Antarctic glacier ice sheet has, we use a different remote sensing machine – ice radar. Ice radar, also known as radio echo detection, is the main method used by glacial scientists to detect the Antarctic ice. In the past few decades, we can’t do without this ice radar to detect the thickness of the ice sheet, the internal structure, the appearance of the ice surface and so on. Human beings have studied the ice sheet for such a long time, and so far our understanding of the ice sheet is only a small part of it. We do not have enough ability to fully speculate or even understand the ice sheet.
More and more scientists agree with the statement that “there are other secrets at the bottom of the ice sheet”, because we have only explored a small part of the ice sheet. If we make a breakthrough in the exploration of the environment at the bottom of the ice sheet, it is obvious that there will be great changes in the development of Antarctic ice sheet science. However, due to the huge size of the Antarctic ice sheet, every small change will lead to a great impact on the global sea level, water cycle, atmosphere and ocean circulation. Obviously, the social and environmental problems are also huge.
Is the source of heat in different places accurately investigated
According to the survey, in Antarctica, the land covered with ice sheet with an average thickness of more than 2160 meters accounts for at least 99% of the total area of Antarctica. It stores 72% of the earth’s fresh water resources. Because the temperature in Antarctica is very low, the probability of melting ice and snow on the ice sheet is small, and the reason for melting ice sheet is more the melting of the bottom of the ice sheet. However, the latest research shows that the cause of ice sheet melting is allochthonic heat, and the source of allochthonic heat has not been investigated up to now. The British Antarctic Survey speculates that there are two reasons for the melting of the ice sheet caused by allochthonous heat.
1. The first reason is that there may be radioactive elements in the ice sheet
“One reason is that there are radioactive elements under the ice sheet, such as uranium and potassium,” said Tom Jordan, a geographer with the Bureau of investigation. But if this is the reason for the heat, it should not be enough to make the Antarctic ice sheet melt so quickly, or even sink year by year. So Jordan speculated that there was another reason.
2. There may be faults under the ice sheet
The radioactive elements, such as potassium and uranium, which we just mentioned, are radiated and melted. More and more heated water is accumulated to form hot spring water, which circulates under the ice sheet repeatedly and keeps heating. This creates a stable heat source and then melts the ice sheet. Of course, the above assumptions are only based on the causes of a series of situations, such as ice sheet melting and heat release in Antarctica. The real causes still need our in-depth exploration and detailed investigation.
Is the Antarctic ice sheet thinning or thickening?
According to calculations, if the Antarctic ice sheet melts, the global water level will rise by about 60 meters. Previous reports on the Antarctic ice sheet have said that the ice sheet is getting thinner and thicker. So who is right?
In fact, three years ago, Dr. Zhang Tong of the Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences started a new type of calibration research work, hoping to calibrate and judge the error of each ice sheet model. Zhang Tong told reporters: “the thinning or thickening of the Antarctic ice sheet depends on the amount of material added or lost.”. So what causes the increase of material? The main reason is precipitation. Material loss can be roughly divided into two types: the first is the melting of the ice sheet that we just mentioned. Whether it is the melting of the surface, or the melting of the interior or the bottom, it will cause material loss. The other is the glacier flowing into the ocean and gradually melting.
In the past 30 years, we have used remote sensing technology to detect glaciers, and scientists have a certain understanding of the ice sheet step by step. Satellite remote sensing shows that the southwest ice sheet, as a typical marine ice sheet, is losing more and more material, and the glaciers are gradually melting. This is an unchangeable fact, so whether the ice sheet is getting thicker or thinner is a matter of fact “Judging whether the Antarctic ice sheet is thickening or thinning depends on the specific geographical location,” Tong said
What happens when Antarctic glaciers melt
The inevitable harm of glacier melting is the rise of water surface, which may lead to tsunamis at any time. Many coastal cities will be inundated, and glacier melting will expose the organisms hidden under the ice sheet. Of course, there will be microorganisms, which may spread everywhere and threaten people’s health. Melting glaciers will also release toxic and harmful substances, and the impact of polluting rivers is huge. Of course, the fluctuation of global climate is not obvious to us, but for the glaciers in the north and south poles, a slight increase in temperature will have a significant impact on glaciers. A slight increase in temperature will make the snow line of alpine glaciers rise and the range of marine glaciers shrink. This phenomenon exists.
According to the investigation, observation and analysis of scientific researchers, the sea level rise caused by sea temperature warming in recent 100 years is about 2-6 cm, of which the global sea level rise is about 2.5 cm, because the Greenland ice sheet has melted. The change of global glacier volume balance plays a key role in the change of the earth’s liquid water. If all the ice caps in Antarctica and other regions melt, most human beings on the earth will lose their living places, which is a great harm. Thus, some coastal areas are also facing the risk of being submerged. The larger island countries are like Japan. Their area will be reduced to only half of the original mountainous area, which is very critical. Therefore, the protection of the Antarctic and the Arctic is very important and needs to be taken seriously.
The significance of glaciers to the existence of the world
The existence of glaciers is very important. The accumulation and melting of glaciers can change the tilt angle of the earth’s axis, thus changing the global temperature. Glaciers can stabilize and balance the position of the earth’s axis, and glaciers can adjust the climate and balance the temperature. If the global glaciers melt completely, the position of the earth’s axis will be determined again, and then the world will enter the ice age.
1. The earth’s glaciers participate in the water cycle
Glaciers are the main part of the earth’s hydrosphere. The evaporation and ablation of glaciers can make the relevant rivers get supplies, so they have been participating in the process of water cycle. Glacier is not only the largest natural reservoir on the earth, but also the largest fresh water resource on the earth. For many years, it has provided water to the headwaters of major rivers and inland rivers steadily for a long time. Glacier and its surrounding environment constitute a harmonious whole. If the exploitation of glacier water resources exceeds the natural limit, it will destroy the balance of the system and lead to serious consequences.
2. Glaciers have the function of regulating climate
Glaciers are also one of the main forms of the underlying surface of the earth’s surface, and they are also one of the main underlying surfaces of the earth’s surface. Glaciers are mostly located in high and cold regions, and the evaporation is relatively small, which affects the nature of global air mass and the movement of pressure belt. Glaciers play an important role in global climate change. Glaciers are the main form of solid water on earth. The circulation of water in liquid, gas and solid state has an important impact on the earth’s environment. Glaciers, especially the large area of polar ice sheet, can reflect a lot of sunlight, which helps to maintain the temperature balance of the earth.
3. Shaping the surface form
Glaciation can form unique glacial landforms, such as bingdou Jiaofeng, Renji, glacial Valley, gorge Bay, etc., which have very beautiful scenery.
4. Affecting biological migration and soil development
In the process of glacier advancing, the vegetation along the glacier will be destroyed, the animals will be forced to migrate, and the soil development process will be interrupted.
Measures to slow down glacier melting
According to foreign media reports, scientists published a research report in the journal cryosphere of the European Union of Geosciences. They believe that artificial walls can be built on the seabed under glaciers to prevent the inflow of hot water. They hope to slow down the speed of sea level rise and the melting of glaciers, so as to buy more time for coastal areas most threatened by the rising sea level to deal with the problem It’s a threat. The artificial wall can not only prevent the glacier from collapsing, but also prevent the glacier bottom from melting due to contact with hot seawater. Scientists are testing the Switz glacier in Antarctica, one of the world’s largest glaciers with a width of 80 to 100 kilometers. They have proposed two ways to build artificial walls.
One of them is relatively easy. It can be built on the seabed around the glacier. It is estimated that it will be about 300 meters long. The main material is sand and stone. It is estimated that there is a 30% probability that the glacier will collapse after it is built. As for the more complicated design, scientists will build a small artificial wall on the bottom of the sea to insulate sea water from touching the bottom of the glacier and prevent the glacier from melting. However, due to the harsh seabed environment, the project is relatively complex, but the chance of success is estimated to be 70%. However, scientists stressed that the construction of the artificial wall is just to stop the boiling, or to warn mankind not to release too much greenhouse gases, otherwise the glacier will melt faster and faster.