The earth is an earth like planet. In this beautiful planet, human beings and terrestrial creatures live on the surface, while marine creatures live in the ocean. But in addition to the earth’s surface and oceans, there is a broader and mysterious place on the earth, which is the interior of the earth.
Since ancient times, all kinds of conjectures about the interior of the earth have never stopped. People in ancient times conjectured that the interior of the earth was another world, so there were myths and legends about hell. After the era of science and technology, although people do not believe that there are legends of hell and hell inside the earth, many people still think that there may be mysterious space inside the earth, where there may be people living in the center of the earth.
There are always stories about underground civilization, but we have never found any evidence. In ancient times, it was possible for people to explore underground. However, when mankind entered the era of science and technology, the desire to explore the interior of the earth became stronger and stronger, so scientists began to drill underground.
When it comes to drilling experiments, we have to talk about the US Soviet competition in the last century. At that time, there were two major powers in the world: the Soviet Union and the United States. The two countries are in a competitive relationship, and both want to put more and more pressure on each other. As we all know, the first man-made satellite was launched by the former Soviet Union, and the astronaut who first landed in space was also Gagarin of the former Soviet Union. Later, unwilling to lag behind, the United States began a larger space exploration project to land on the moon, and it also succeeded. As a result, the United States made history and became the first country for human beings to land on the moon. Up to now, there is no second country to land on the moon.
At that time, in addition to the exploration of space, the US Soviet competition also had a big plan for the earth, which was to explore the underground world. At that time, the United States planned to drill through the crust with an average thickness of 17 kilometers, but it was impossible to drill through the crust from the ground. Therefore, the United States chose to drill on the sea floor. The Moho is the boundary between the crust and the mantle, and it only needs to drill down about 7 kilometers from the sea floor to go deep into the mantle.
U.S. scientists used the kussler to drill holes in the waters near Guadeloupe island. If successful, it only needs to drill down an average of 6 km to 7.7 m to drill through the crust and enter the mantle. At that time, the planned cost was $300 million, and the first stage of experimental drilling was successful, harvesting 183 meters of rock samples from the ocean crust.
However, with the development of drilling, it became more and more difficult to discover, especially to drill on the seabed. According to the estimation of scientists at that time, it would cost more than 300 million US dollars to complete the drilling experiment. It was necessary to apply to the U.S. House of representatives for more funds, but due to political and economic reasons, the application was not passed, so the 1966 Moho plan was stranded.
Seeing the failure of the U.S. underground drilling experiment, the Soviet Union began a fierce offensive on underground exploration. In 1970, the code named “earth Telescope Project” began. At that time, the Soviet Union selected thousands of scientific researchers to gather secretly on the Kola Peninsula for geological drilling. It’s a very wise choice to drill down through the surface, but if you want to drill through the crust, you need to drill 17 kilometers down.
In order to surpass the United States, the scientists of the Soviet Union also made great efforts. However, they did not expect that after the plan started, they encountered one difficulty after another. For this reason, it took 20 years for Kola’s ultra deep drilling experiment. Later, the project was forced to stop and the hole was closed. The deepest part of kola ultra deep borehole has reached 12262 meters, which is the deepest underground borehole in the world.
After the Kola ultra deep drilling experiment stopped, many people who didn’t know the truth began to speculate, and there were many versions. The most amazing rumor was that when the hole reached the deepest point, there was a scream similar to that of human beings. Some people also said that it was drilling into hell, and even there was a rumor that a demon was drilling out of the Kola ultra deep drilling. What’s more amazing is that there is a recording that seems to be a scream deep in the hole.
Of course, these are false and untrustworthy. Some people may ask, if the rumor is false, then what is the reason why Kola ultra deep drilling experiment really stopped? What did scientists discover through this ultra deep drilling experiment? In fact, the reason that really forces the drilling experiment to stop is that it can’t continue to drill down. The reason is that the current materials of human beings can’t reach the level of continuing to drill down.
We all know that the earth’s interior is a high temperature and high pressure environment, with the increasing depth, the internal temperature and pressure are increasing. And the deeper the depth, the stronger the geological structure, the harder the rock, the higher the temperature and pressure, so that the bit can not bear. The first 12000 meters of Kela ultra deep drilling took about 10 years. However, the last 262 meters also used 10 meters. At 12000 meters, the drill bit was softened by the high temperature in the depth of the earth. The drill bit was worn very seriously, and it was scrapped in a few times. Then it needed to be upgraded from a depth of more than 10000 meters to a new one.
It takes about 8 hours to change the drill bit every time, so the progress is very slow. By the time it reached 12262 meters, it was very difficult for the drill to penetrate the rock layer deep underground, so the 20-year ultra deep drilling experiment was nearly stopped. In the future, when human science and technology are more developed and more high-temperature and high-pressure resistant bit materials are developed, it is believed that the Kola ultra deep drilling experiment may be restarted and continue to drill down along the original depth until it penetrates the crust into the mantle layer.
So what important discoveries did Soviet scientists make in 20 years of ultra deep drilling experiments? If there is no discovery, no one believes it. In fact, the drilling depth of 12262 meters has opened up most of the crust, and many important discoveries are certain. One discovery is that there is no granite basalt transition layer at the level of 7 km underground. Through seismic wave detection, the scientists found that the velocity changed at the location of 7 km. They thought that there would be a granite basalt transition layer, but drilling experiments found that there was no such transition layer.
The second discovery is that a large amount of hydrogen suddenly came out when the drilling hole reached a mud place, which shows that the hydrogen content in the earth is also very rich. The third discovery is that scientists have discovered a layer of gold deep underground, where the gold content has reached a staggering 80 grams per ton. We need to know that if we exceed 4 grams per ton on the surface, we can meet the initial commercial exploitation value. The content of 80 grams per ton is amazing. Unfortunately, the depth is 9000 meters below the ground. With the current technology of human beings, there is no ability to mine.
The discovery of a rich gold layer 9000 meters underground also gives scientists a new understanding of the early history of the earth. For a long time, scientists believe that the earth’s gold and other precious metals come from outer space. Some scientists speculate that in the early days of the earth, there was a gold rain, and a large number of fragments of gold asteroids left behind the earth. At that time, the earth was still in a molten state. After the gold fell to the earth, most of it went deep into the earth, and only a small part of it remained in the surface layer Rain has brought at least six billion tons of gold to the earth.
In the past, scientists also speculated that there should be a gold layer inside the earth, but the Kola ultra deep drilling experiment proved this, and also knew the specific depth of the gold layer. When the future technology is more developed, it may be able to go deep into the gold layer of 9000 meters underground to extract gold.
The fourth discovery is the discovery of microbial fossil samples at a depth of 12000 meters. Although they are only fossil samples, they are of great value for human beings to explore underground life. Now scientists have discovered that there is a rich underground ecosystem under our feet, in which the total biomass is at least twice that of marine life. This shows that the world inside the earth is absolutely more wonderful and mysterious than we think.
Guys, what do you think of this? You are welcome to stay for discussion and express your opinions.