Before human beings walked out of the earth, people were thinking: How did the earth come? After human beings stepped out of the earth and saw the vast universe, scientists put forward the planetary theory through a lot of observation and research, and basically understood the origin of the earth.
There are countless celestial bodies and galaxies in the vast universe, and we can basically find their origins through research. The origin of celestial bodies and galaxies has changed, but a more grand question has been raised: what is the origin of the universe?
Since there are origins of celestial bodies and galaxies, the universe must also have origins. After research, scientists put forward the big bang theory, believing that our universe originated from a singularity 13.8 billion years ago. In the 1960s, Hawking and Penrose proposed the singularity theorem, which was proved by some cosmic observation data.
After the big bang of singularity, the universe was born, and then expanded and evolved, with the present colorful universe. Today’s big bang theory has become the mainstream view of the origin of the universe, and with the continuous accumulation of observation data, more and more evidence appears, which proves the correctness of the singularity big bang theory.
The origin of the universe now scientists have basically found the answer, so people think of another more grand question: what was the universe like before it was born? If the universe originated from the big bang, then before the birth of the universe, there should be something. What would it look like?
As for the appearance of the universe before its birth, it may be meaningless for many people to study it, because there was no time and space before the big bang, and it was not until after the big bang that time and space were created. Since time was born after the big bang, what is the significance of studying before the big bang?
The above explanation seems very reasonable, but no one is satisfied with the impeccable answer of causality. As long as anything exists, it will have cause and effect, as well as before and after. The same is true of the universe. Its existence will have origin and end, as well as the existence before its birth.
However, it is much more difficult to study the appearance of the universe before its birth than to study and explore the origin of the universe, because it is very difficult to start, and we don’t know what direction to study and explore. Roger Penrose won the Nobel Prize in physics in 2020. This 89 year old man is not ordinary. He proposed the singularity theorem with Hawking in the 1960s, and proved that the universe originated from a singularity with some data.
After Roger Penrose put forward the theory that the universe originated from singularity, he also thought about what the universe looked like before it was born? Penrose also doesn’t agree that it’s meaningless to study the appearance of the universe before its birth. In his opinion, there must be existence before the birth of the universe, so what will it look like?
After continuous thinking and research, Roger Penrose proposed conformal cycle cosmology. So what is a conformal cyclic universe? In fact, we use a simple word to express that the universe is reincarnated.
The mathematical basis of Penrose conformal cyclic universe (CCC) model is conformal mapping, also known as conformal mapping. The term “conformal” reflects the geometric meaning of transformation, that is, it keeps the angle between two smooth curves and the shape of infinitesimal structure unchanged, but does not keep their size. At the time point of the big bang, the original dense shrinking space was transformed and stretched; for the future, the transformation can limit the infinite expanding space to a limited range.
The above explanation is more tongue twister and difficult to understand. In popular language, I believe friends all know that the universe was born from the big bang and then began to accelerate its expansion. The expansion of the universe makes the distance between galaxies larger and larger, and galaxies keep away from each other, becoming “isolated islands of the universe”. On the other hand, gravity makes stars and galaxies collapse, forming more and more large stellar black holes and super black holes.
Scientists finally confirmed in 2008 that the center of the galaxy itself is a supermassive black hole with a mass of about 4 million times that of the sun. Black holes and black holes may merge to produce larger black holes, but they will never split into smaller black holes.
In the universe, the merging of galaxies is very common. The Milky way and Andromeda galaxy will also collide and fuse in 4 billion years. The two black holes in the center will also collide and fuse, and finally become a larger black hole with large mass. And this kind of Galaxy merging will continue in the future, and will continue to evolve, so a super huge black hole will appear in the center of the universe.
Let’s talk about the expansion of the universe. Will it continue? I’m afraid it’s impossible. We all know that if a balloon wants to expand, we need to blow air into it to provide energy for it. If the universe is unique, then its energy can not be obtained from the outside world, but can only consume the energy in the universe. This energy may be the dark energy we have been looking for.
Dark energy accelerates the expansion of the universe, and the continuous expansion of the universe is consuming energy. With the continuous reduction of energy, the expansion of the universe can not continue, and will stop at some time in the future. Is stopping expansion the end of the universe? Of course, it is not. With less and less energy, the universe will not be able to maintain, so it will collapse, that is, the universe will continue to shrink after it stops expanding. Finally, the whole universe will shrink to the singularity state again, the new Big Bang will happen again, and the new universe will begin to expand and evolve.
Penrose believes that our universe is in this big bang expansion big bang expansion infinite cycle, and the universe before the birth of another universe, not nothing. This theory can also be explained by the law of entropy. We all know that the law of entropy is the second law of thermodynamics, which makes scientists despair.
The law of entropy tells us that from the moment of birth of anything, entropy is increasing, and this process is irreversible. With the increase of entropy, the system will be more and more chaotic, and finally to the end, so will the universe. From the moment of the singularity explosion, entropy began to increase.
With the increase of entropy, the universe will become more and more unstable, and then the universe will shrink, the celestial body will be destroyed, the black hole will continue to grow, devour all the matter and convert it into energy, and finally the black hole will evaporate and disappear, and the whole universe will become a pure energy space. The energy space continues to collapse. After the extreme reduction, it will explode again, and a new cosmic cycle will begin.
Penrose’s theory of conformal cycle cosmology, with its Nobel Prize in physics in 2020, has once again come to light. Penrose once again recommended this theory, which can explain what the universe looked like before, and firmly predicted that the six Hawking points found on the cosmic microwave background are the best proof of this theory.
However, the conformal cycle cosmology is still not supported by a large number of scientists. Hawking point is the key to prove the correctness of this view. However, scientists have been carefully examining the cosmic microwave background for many years, and have not found any special hot spots. The so-called Hawking point does not exist.
From this point of view, Penrose’s conformal circular cosmology needs a long way to go before it can be accepted by people. In any case, this theory is of great significance in revealing what the universe might have been like before. If in the future scientists discover Hawking’s point and prove the conformal cycle cosmology, then he will be as great a scientist as Einstein.