The earth is the home where human beings have lived for millions of years. It is a beautiful blue planet with 71% surface water content. When we stand on the earth, we may not feel how much water there is on the earth, but when we walk out of the earth and look at the earth from space, you will find that the surface of the earth is surrounded by a lot of water, which is a real water ball.
When people came out of the earth and began to explore the universe, scientists found that the solar system is a very special galaxy. There are not only the asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt, the Oort nebula, but also two strange phenomena. The first is that among the eight major planets, only the earth has a large amount of liquid water on its surface. Venus and Mars, which are also in the habitable zone, have no liquid water on their surface.
Second, of the three planets in the habitable zone, only the earth is a beautiful planet of life, the other two are barren planets, and Venus is a purgatory planet with extremely bad environment. Secondly, the planets outside the asteroid belt are not as short of water as those inside. On the contrary, the planets outside the asteroid belt are a world full of water, where many planets have ice crystals. Even under the ice of these planets, scientists speculate that there may be a large number of liquid oceans.
At present, scientists have detected planets with a large amount of frozen water, such as IO, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto, Titan, Enceladus, etc. in addition to Jupiter and a few of Saturn, Jupiter has a large amount of ice water, Pluto and Triton in the edge of the solar system also have ice crystals, and these planets with ice crystals on the surface have the probability of liquid water underground It’s also very high. The most obvious is Ganymede, a planet whose surface is completely covered with ice. There may be a huge ocean of salt water under its ice layer, which contains much more water than the earth.
This strange phenomenon of the solar system has aroused people’s interest. At the same time, a question has emerged? Where did a lot of liquid water come from in the early days of the earth? Some people say that the earth itself was born, but scientists have found that this possibility is very small. In the early days of the earth, it was always in a molten state, according to the lack of conditions for the synthesis of water molecules.
So it’s possible that synthetic water molecules from outer space landed on earth? There is almost no possibility of this. As the planets in the habitable zone are close to the sun, the temperature here makes it difficult for the water molecules in this space to exist. There is no water molecules in the surrounding space, so naturally they cannot land on the surface of the planet to form a liquid ocean. So where does the earth’s water come from?
A common recognition among scientists is that it was brought about by comets. Although it is very difficult to form water molecules near the sun, outside the small stars and 300 million kilometers away from the earth, due to the distance from the sun, the temperature has also dropped a lot. The space environment here is more likely to form water molecules. Water molecules combine to form ice crystals, which are constantly attached to planets, asteroids, comets and other celestial bodies.
This can be found from our current observations of objects outside the asteroid belt and on the edge of the solar system. As we all know, comets are mainly composed of water ice and dust, rocks, etc., but most of them are water ice. Comets move in elliptical orbits around the sun. When they move towards the inner galaxy, they are like giant “water carriers”.
When these comet water tankers pass through the earth, they will be captured by the earth’s gravity, impact the earth, and bring a lot of water to the earth. A large number of ice crystals carried by comets will evaporate into water vapor when passing through the atmosphere, and then reach the earth’s surface through rainfall. Because the earth has its own magnetic field and thick atmosphere, it is not easy for water to evaporate into space after it comes to the earth, so there is a large amount of water on the surface of the earth.
Some people may have a question: why in the early days of the solar system, there were comets passing through the earth and being captured, leaving water behind? It’s not hard to understand that our seemingly peaceful, clean and stable solar system was not like this in the early days of its formation.
At the beginning of the formation of the solar system, there was a lot of dust in the solar system. At this time, the solar system was still very unstable, planets were forming, and celestial body collisions often occurred. At this time, there are a large number of comets and asteroids in the solar system. Naturally, these comets have not formed their own stable orbit and often fly around.
These comets may come from the asteroid belt, the edge of the solar system, or even outside the solar system. During their journey to the inner planets, they are also constantly condensing ice crystals. Finally, they come to the inner galaxy and impact the earth, bringing a lot of water. In fact, many of the moons of Jupiter and Saturn that we see now have a large number of ice crystals. Even there may be huge oceans under the ice. These moons may have been comets in the early days. When they passed through Jupiter and Saturn, they were captured by strong gravity and became moons.
Comets not only bring a lot of water resources to the earth, but also bring some minerals and precious organic matter. The origin of life on earth may also be related to comets. Of course, all this is only human speculation. Scientists need to constantly study and explore the truth. And it’s the asteroids that can explore the early days of the solar system.
Asteroids are completely exposed in space because they have no atmosphere. Although they have been exposed for billions of years, they may still retain the material composition of the early solar system. The Longgong asteroid landed by the Japanese falcon-2 probe is such an asteroid. It still retains the material of the early solar system beyond its surface. Through the research and analysis of these materials, it is possible to uncover the mystery of the early solar system, the origin of earth water and the origin of life, and perhaps find some clues.
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