We all know that the world in which human beings live is a planet called Earth. On the other hand, there is a vast universe outside the earth. At the moment when people walk out of the earth and see the vast universe, we have infinite interest in the mystery of the universe.
We use science to study and explore the mysteries of the world. In the process of exploration, we found that the universe is made up of matter. Without matter, there would be no stars, no planets, no life on earth, no birth of human beings. So the question is, where does matter come from in the universe? Is it something out of nothing?
In 1995, 1998 and 2003, the Hubble Space Telescope exposed the empty areas at different positions in the sky for more than ten days or even dozens of days, and finally got three pictures of HDF, HDFS and HUDF.
Through these three photos, we see a wonderful and bright universe. In many people’s eyes, the universe is dark and lonely, with few matter and galaxies. In fact, the universe is not lonely at all, and the number of galaxies is too large to be counted. Standing in a very limited range, the universe we see is indeed very dark.
But when we look far away, you will find that the universe is actually very bright. There are all kinds of galaxies and stars everywhere. Even in the sky 13.35 billion light-years away, there are still countless galaxies shining. There are so many galaxies that can’t be counted. They are all made up of all kinds of materials. In order to form such a large number of galaxies, it is necessary to have a huge amount of materials. So where do these materials come from?
To reveal the origin of matter, we need to explore the origin of the universe. Through a large number of observation data, scientists put forward the big bang theory, and believe that our universe originated from a singularity 13.8 billion years ago. It was this singularity that, under the influence of some force, produced the big bang and gave birth to the early universe.
After the birth of the universe, it did not stop expanding. Instead, it expanded at a speed faster than the speed of light. After 13.8 billion years of expansion, it formed the vast universe we see today. However, it is not clear how big the universe is now. The observable range of human beings is only 93 billion light-years. This is because the speed of photons is only the speed of light. Even in distant galaxies, the speed of photons is lower than the expansion speed, and they will never come to the earth.
Therefore, beyond the scope of observable universe, there is more vast and unknown space. After we know the origin of the universe, we also understand that before the birth of the universe, everything does not exist, there is no space-time, no space, and no matter.
Matter in the universe was born after the big bang, so how was it born? Is it out of thin air? From a scientific point of view, we do not believe that there is a life out of nothing in the world. Everything happens for a reason, and so does the appearance of matter. It must be transformed from other things. So what is transformed into matter?
These mysteries make scientists encounter difficulties, until the appearance of Einstein, only to give the answer. Einstein has two great theories, one is the theory of relativity, the other is the equation of mass energy equivalence. Before the appearance of the mass energy equation, although scientists knew the origin of the universe, they could not explain the source of matter clearly.
You know, the magic of the birth of matter from a singularity makes many people feel incredible. It can’t be explained in a single sentence. Until the appearance of the mass energy equivalence equation, we understand that there is no difference between mass and energy. Mass is energy, and energy is also mass. They are just two sides of the whole thing, and they are the way of expression in different states.
With the guidance of the equation of mass energy equivalence, scientists’ cognition of matter and energy has also risen to a new level. Let’s have a research direction on the source of matter. Although we know that energy and matter are equal, matter can be transformed into energy, and energy can also be transformed into matter, in the real world, we only see a large number of phenomena that matter is transformed into energy, but we have not seen the situation that energy is transformed into matter.
Although we have never seen energy transformed into matter in reality, scientists have no doubt about the correctness of the mass energy equation. The reason why we can’t see the transformation of energy into matter is that this transformation requires very harsh conditions, which can’t be realized in the real world.
Scientists have found that if energy wants to be transformed into matter, the most important thing is that its temperature should reach a very terrible level. In June 2011, the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory accelerated the collision of two gold nuclei to near the speed of light, and detected the “quark gluon plasma”, that is, the phase transition temperature between matter and energy, on the star detector of the collider! It’s about 2 trillion degrees Celsius.
This temperature is the critical value of the previous transformation of energy and matter. Upward is the world of energy, and downward is the world of matter. Therefore, energy and energy are just manifestations in different states. Such a terrible temperature can not be seen in the real world and the universe. It can only be realized at the moment of the big bang of singularity.
When the singularity inflation transforms into the universe, the dense energy brings the energy world. At this time, the cosmic matter exists in the form of energy. As the temperature drops to the critical point of 2 trillion, matter begins to transform from energy state to mass. Quark gluons combine to form protons and neutrons, and continue to cool. Protons and protons and neutrons fuse to form nuclei such as hydrogen, helium and lithium.
With these basic material elements, after a period of development, the formation of atoms. Then there are the emergence of stars. The first batch of stars are basically super massive stars, and their life span is only tens of millions of years. When supernovae erupt, material elements continue to evolve and form more heavy elements.
With the heavy elements, there is a material basis for the birth of planets. In the whole evolution process of the universe, stars play an important role, because it is the smelter of the universe, hydrogen, helium and other basic elements need it to continue to evolve through nuclear fusion to form oxygen, iron and other elements. Finally, the life of the star is up to a supernova explosion, which once again evolves heavier, more elements.
Through the above understanding, we understand that the matter of the universe is not made out of nothing, Einstein’s mass energy equation tells us the answer. This answer makes scientists very happy. Energy and matter can be transformed into each other. Although the requirement of temperature is too high for energy to be transformed into matter, the universe only has the conditions at the moment of birth, but we have the power of science.
Science has nothing to do with it. We can’t reach the critical temperature of 2 trillion in the universe. Through the power of science, we may be able to do it in the future. At that time, human beings can transform energy into matter at will, and this technology is incredibly powerful. With such technology, we will no longer have to worry about resources, because all resources can be transformed with the ubiquitous energy of the universe.