When it comes to pork, many people can’t help sighing: “the price of pork in the past two years is really too expensive. The second pig is eager to try, and the price has been soaring.” Pork is China China delicacy most of the table, but many people make complaints about the pork prices that have been out of line for two years. In fact, we do not know that the price of Chinese pork has risen all the way, and it is directly related to the plague and the extinction of Chinese indigenous pigs.
Where does the “pork” on the Chinese table come from?
Pork is an important part of Chinese catering culture. No matter it is a top-grade luxury restaurant or a street stall, any kind of menu can’t do without “pork”. Chefs can make pork into a variety of delicacies, which can be described as “treasure all over the body”. However, Chinese people love pork so much, and they are “deeply interested” in the second pig. Even so, it does not make China’s “local pig” breed prosperous. On the contrary, the pork we eat is imported from abroad. Why does it become like this? “Where does the pork on the Chinese table come from?”
1. Most of them come from imported “foreign pork”
At present, more than 80% of China’s pork is imported, which has become a deadlock of “foreign introduction – degradation, re introduction, re degradation”! From 1994 to 2007, the market share of China’s “native pig” has plummeted from 90% to 2%, which makes Chinese people shudder. Nowadays, most of the pork food on our table comes from imports, and native pig species are on the verge of extinction. In other words, so far, pork on China’s dining table has reached a new high in imports. In China’s breeding industry, the vast majority of pig breeds are imported. It can be said that the Chinese people not only raise half of the world’s pigs, but also eat half of the world’s pigs. Relevant data show that in 2019, global pork consumption will reach 100.9 million tons, while China will consume 44.866 million tons. From this big data, we can see that China’s pig breeds have entered a “embarrassing” situation, and most of the imported foreign pig breeds are basically Sanyuan pigs.
What is ternary pig? What’s the difference between it and binary pig?
In the import market, the main breed of pigs is hybrid pigs. Hybrid pigs are divided into ternary pigs and binary pigs. When I first heard this name, I believe many people would be confused. In fact, binary pigs and ternary pigs are different names. Binary pigs are very simple hybrid pigs. For example, when two breeds of pigs are crossed, the offspring will be binary pigs In the aspect of feeding, binary pigs grow rapidly, need simple breeding techniques, and are widely used. Compared with the binary pig, the ternary pig is a more complex hybrid pig. It is the first generation of hybrid sows produced by crossbreeding two breeds of pigs on the basis of the binary pig, and then crossbreeding with the boars in the binary pig. This complex process can also be understood that the ternary pig is the offspring of the binary pig.
However, compared with binary pigs, ternary pigs have an absolute advantage in hybridization effect. The common ternary pigs in our daily life are big white pigs, Landrace boars, Duroc pigs, etc. Whether it’s the pork that Chinese people eat on the dinner table or the breed of pigs they raise, they are basically the offspring of the imported “foreign pig” – Sanyuan pig. It can be said that today’s China is the world’s largest pork production and consumption country. In the past two years, China’s imported breeding pigs have reached a record high.
The picture shows a large white pig
How did the “breeding pig” replace China’s native pig and occupy the Chinese table?
1. After the reform and opening up, the living standard of Chinese people has improved, and the demand has surged
After the founding of the people’s Republic of China, China’s economic development was very backward at that time. In the early 1960s, China experienced another three years of famine. During this hard period, the older generation struggled to survive by “eating bark and digging wild vegetables”. Since then, if a family can eat pork, it means that the family is very rich. At that time, the ability to eat pork has become a symbol of the identity of the rich.
At that time, black pigs were the basic representatives of local “native pigs” in China, and the growth cycle was slow. Many farmers were not willing to raise such native pigs because the economic benefits were too low. Until 1990, China implemented the policy of reform and opening up, and the demand for pork increased with the improvement of Chinese economic level. In order to meet this demand, China began to introduce Sanyuan pig represented by “breeding pig”, including Duroc pig, landrace pig, large white pig and other hybrid breeds. The biggest advantage of this kind of imported Sanyuan pigs is that they have short growth cycle and high lean meat rate, which can better meet the pork demand of Chinese people.
The picture shows Duroc pig
At the same time, for farmers, they are more willing to raise imported “breeding pigs”. For example, breeding pigs eat less, grow fast, have a high lean meat rate, taste delicious, have high reproductive productivity, and are not easy to get sick. However, local “native pigs” in China eat more, have high feed costs, and have a long production cycle. It will take about a year for native pigs to come out, However, it only takes half a year for imported breeding pigs, and the gap between the two is too big. Therefore, many farmers are more willing to cultivate imported breeding pigs, but in fact, the local black pigs in China are really delicious. I don’t know how many small partners have eaten them.
The picture shows the local black pig in China
China’s pig price has entered a “bull market”, and countries all over the world are eyeing China
Nowadays, Chinese people eat more and more pork, but the distance from pigs is getting farther and farther. It has become a fact that China’s pork supply is tight, the import volume has reached a record high, and the domestic pork price is expensive. Pig raising countries all over the world have closely followed China’s huge market. According to relevant industry statistics, in 2018, China imported 1.193 million tons of frozen pork, and in 2019, the amount of imported frozen pork reached 2 million tons. As the world’s largest soybean and corn producer, Brazil has a significant advantage in pork price compared with other countries in the world because of its low feed price, and has become China’s largest pork importer! Due to the impact of African swine fever, China’s pork import rate continues to grow. In addition, Australia is also keeping a close eye on China’s pork import market, and they have been looking forward to joining the ranks of pork export. Russia is also expected to open up China’s pork market.
Why can’t Chinese people breed pigs by themselves?
In the next few years, whether it is imported foreign pork or imported breeding pigs, there will only be more and more imported pigs. In contrast, there will be less and less native pigs in China. In China’s territory with thousands of years of history, “native pig” is even on the verge of extinction, so some netizens can’t help asking, “why do we have to import pig breeds, and we Chinese can’t cultivate them ourselves?”
In the theory of species evolution, all species are following the principle of “natural selection”, and so are pigs. In the process of breeding good breeds of pigs, if there is no better evolution, it means that there will be degradation. Previously, we also mentioned that the biggest disadvantage of Chinese indigenous “native pig” is that it has a slow growth cycle, consumes more feed, and the cost of raising a native pig can be reduced It is very difficult for Chinese people to raise two “foreign pigs” and change the reproductive performance, growth performance and meat quality of “native pigs”. Instead of wasting energy on how to research and cultivate high-quality pigs, it is better to buy imported “breeding pigs” and breed Sanyuan pigs by themselves.
It is worth mentioning that imported “breeding pigs” also have certain disadvantages. Generally speaking, if a “breeding pig” is introduced from abroad and basically propagated to the fourth generation in China, it will degenerate, such as easily getting sick or not easily growing up. This has entered a dead cycle, with imported “breeding pigs” – degenerating – reintroducing. Nowadays, China’s “breeding pigs” imported from abroad cost hundreds of millions every year, which is not only expensive, but also makes it stand in the pyramid of the whole pig industry.
What kind of consequences will be brought about by the introduction of “breeding pigs” through excessive reliance on imports?
1. Indigenous pigs are forced to go extinct
China has a long history and culture of pig raising. According to the pig bones first found in Henan Province, archaeologists calculated that in the Neolithic Age 9000 years ago, China had the custom of pig raising. In addition, the earliest written records in the world, the oracle bone inscriptions unearthed from Yin Ruins in China, are about pig raising. Therefore, it can be proved that this should be the evidence of the house feeding in Shang and Zhou dynasties. Although China is a big pig country, it is not a powerful pig country. The transition to the introduction of breeding pigs, so that the “imported breeding pigs” fully occupy the market share, it will make China’s local “native pigs” completely extinct. At that time, it is very difficult for China’s large pig farmers to get rid of the dilemma of “imported breeding pigs”. Under the crazy attack of “imported breeding pigs”, in less than 30 years, China’s native pigs are doomed, and there are even four breeds Some of the native pigs in China have disappeared, such as Dingxian pig, Longyou black pig and nilehei pig. In the next few years, China’s indigenous pigs will become as precious as the national treasure panda.
2. Chinese people can no longer eat the delicacy of “native pig”
Chinese food culture is broad and profound, and behind it is the diversity of food materials and local characteristics. Suddenly looking back, we find that Beijing roast duck is no longer the Peking duck it used to be, Sichuan’s twice cooked meat is no longer the twice cooked meat it used to be, but the proud local specialties are gradually disappearing in the long river of time. There are many native pig breeds in China, such as Heitu pig, Jinhua Pig, Chenghua pig, etc. these native pigs are representative of the most typical pig breeds in China. Among them, Chenghua pig is the most suitable one for making double cooked pork. Its meat is fresh and tender, fat but not greasy. I believe many people have not tasted the original taste. Unfortunately, Chenghua pig is on the verge of extinction. Relevant data show that there are only about 100 Chenghua pigs left in China in 2013, and they are now in captivity in Chengdu nature reserve.
The picture shows Chenghua pig
Chinese indigenous pig is on the verge of extinction. What can Chinese people do?
We can’t let the “imported breeding pigs” get stuck in the neck. Although the growth cycle of native pigs is slow, we can improve and cultivate them, improve the economic value of farmers, and avoid the situation of Chinese native pigs being eliminated. For example, we should adopt the “hybrid” method to maintain the intramuscular fat level of native pig and improve its growth cycle; for our consumers, we should refuse to waste and cherish food. The pork that used to be wasted by us, now we have to eat its own fruit. Avoid waste, we are entitled to enjoy more pork food.