Why are there four basic forces in the universe? Can they be unified? The road ahead is hard

This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.

13.8 billion years ago, the big bang happened at a mysterious singularity. The super energy generated in the big bang was transformed into basic particles, which quickly evolved into basic elements such as hydrogen, helium, lithium, etc.


With the continuous expansion of the universe, these basic elements began to undergo various evolutions, forming stars, planets, stars and other celestial bodies and cosmic structures. At the same time, there are various laws of the universe. With planets, a small number of asteroids evolved into perfect ecosystems, and life was born.

After continuous evolution, life finally gave birth to intelligent life and gradually developed into intelligent civilization. All this is so incredible, so how did all this evolution since the birth of the universe proceed? Who controls all this behind them?

Before mankind entered the era of science and technology, people knew nothing about science. At that time, people attributed all phenomena in nature and the formation of the world to divine creation. The ancients believed that God created the universe, created everything in the universe, and formulated various laws of the universe.


However, when human beings enter the era of science and technology, we have the power of science to get a glimpse of the truth behind nature. The weather and thunder in nature, the change of four seasons, the resistance and the heating phenomenon in the process of people’s rapid progress, all of which can be explained by science.

Everything in nature can not escape from the scope of science. There is no God behind them, but the law behind science dominates all this. And the core of science is also all kinds of laws, which we usually call the four basic forces. They are gravity, electromagnetic force, strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force.


All phenomena and rules of nature are dominated by these four basic forces, and all evolution in the universe is actually carried out by these four basic forces. It can be said that when we study and explore science, we are actually studying these four forces. Some scientists once said that the end of science is theology. In fact, this view is correct to some extent.

When we fully grasp the four basic forces, everything in nature will be controlled by us, and all mysteries in the universe will no longer be mysterious. Through the four basic forces, we can control everything in the universe. At that time, human beings were the God of the universe.

Among the four basic forces, gravity is the one we are most familiar with. After mankind entered the era of science and technology, it is also gravity that scientists first explored and studied. Newton’s law of universal gravitation is a basic explanation of gravitation. We live on the earth and can walk freely instead of floating in the air, because the earth’s gravity binds us firmly to the earth.


Gravity is related to the mass of an object. The greater the mass, the greater the gravity. The reason why the eight major planets in the solar system can keep stable and run around the sun is that the mass of the sun accounts for 99.86% of the mass of the whole solar system, which produces a strong gravity that absolutely dominates the solar system.

Electromagnetic force is the second natural force discovered by scientists after gravity. It is the source of all conveniences in modern human life. Most of our current electronic products, including electricity, light, computer, TV, mobile phone, network and so on, are electromagnetic force related applications.


In nature, lightning, thunder, thunderstorm and other natural forces that make us feel fear are also dominated by electromagnetic forces. It is the charge of the particle that determines the strength of the electromagnetic force. The more the charge is, the stronger the electromagnetic force will be. This is very similar to the mass determining the strength of gravity.

In addition to the above gravitational and electromagnetic forces we are familiar with, and have been widely used. The two basic forces, strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force, are less understood by human beings. These two forces are important channels for exploring the micro world. They are the forces acting on the nucleus.

We all know that behind the macro world in our eyes is a micro world, and the mystery and power of the micro world are far beyond our imagination. In the world of micro quantum mechanics, many phenomena subvert the macro theory. Although the micro world is very mysterious and complex, they still do not escape from the scope of science and the scope of four basic forces.


Strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force are important safeguards to explore the atomic level of the micro world. In the process of research, scientists found that once the particle exceeds the sub atomic scale, the two forces will completely lose their function. Therefore, we can only explore and study these two forces in the micro world, which is the reason why they are later discovered and more difficult to study than gravitational force and electromagnetic force.

Strong nuclear forces bind Quarks to protons and neutrons through gluons, and then “bundle” protons and neutrons together to fill the nucleus. Weak nuclear force seems to be simpler. Now scientists have found that it only dominates some forms of radioactive decay.


We can study and explore the electromagnetic forces of gravitation from the macroscopic aspect, and it is easier to find a breakthrough point and apply them to the scientific and technological development of human civilization. Once we enter the micro quantum world, it is very difficult for us to explore. Therefore, human beings are still in the primary stage of exploration for strong and weak nuclear forces.

Some people may say that strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force are two kinds of forces at the micro level. Their power should be less than that of gravity and electromagnetic force. Is this really the case? If you think so, it’s a big mistake.

In fact, among the four basic forces, gravity is the weakest, followed by electromagnetic force, and strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force are far stronger than them. Under the same experimental conditions, strong nuclear force is 100000 times stronger than weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force is 100 times stronger than electromagnetic force, and electromagnetic force is 10 billion times stronger than gravity (10 ^ 42 times).


It is precisely because the energy level of strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force is so powerful that scientists have been actively studying these two forces, hoping to make them a powerful boost to human development. We need to know that whether human civilization can be upgraded and become a more advanced civilization depends mainly on whether energy technology can develop and change qualitatively.

And if energy technology wants to achieve a major breakthrough, we need to explore and develop more powerful energy. There is no doubt that strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force are the forces that human beings expect to obtain, but it is not as simple as we think to explore the mystery of these two forces.


In addition to exploring the mystery of the four basic forces, scientists expect to unify the four forces to form a unified theoretical guidance and formula. Human beings first discovered and studied gravity, and then electromagnetic force. Up to now, scientists have not completed the unification of these two forces.

If we can unify these two forces and form a unified theory, then human civilization will be able to achieve a huge leap, and science and technology will usher in earth shaking changes. This is only the unity of the two forces. If human beings realize the unity of the four forces and form a unified theory to manage the four forces, we can’t imagine how strong human civilization will be.

As we said before, the universe is dominated by four basic forces. Under the action of the four forces, the universe has completed a series of evolution, and now there is a vast and mysterious universe. We feel that the universe is complex and mysterious because we have not yet completed the unification of the four forces. If we unify them, the universe may have no secrets in front of human beings. At that time, the whole universe may be the back garden of human beings.


It can be seen that the unity of the four basic forces is of great significance to human beings. Since it is so important, it shows that the difficulty of unifying the four forces is far beyond our imagination. In the last 30 years of his life, Einstein, the great scientist of the last century, has been trying to find a way to unify the four basic forces, but he failed in the end.

In the 21st century, scientists are also actively exploring the four basic forces, trying to find a way to unify them step by step. Unifying the four basic forces will become the most important challenge facing scientists in the 21st century. Can this challenge succeed?

In fact, the possibility of success is very small. In the 21st century, it is a great achievement that human beings can take the study of the four forces to a higher level. In particular, a qualitative breakthrough is needed in the research and exploration of strong and weak nuclear forces. The great goal of unifying the four basic forces is too far away for mankind. It requires not only more efforts, but also the precipitation of time and science.

As long as time accumulates to a certain extent and human science settles to a certain degree, we can really unify the four basic forces. At that time, human beings were the advanced civilization of the universe. At present, we are only at level 0.7, not even level 1 civilization.

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