13.8 billion years ago, the big bang happened in a mysterious singularity. With the big bang, the universe was born, as well as time and space. The introduction to temperature was born at the moment of the big bang. For temperature, I believe we are not unfamiliar, we are always under the influence of temperature, are feeling the change of temperature.
It is precisely because the earth has a warm and adaptive environment that it can become a beautiful ecological planet and give birth to life and human beings. It can be seen that the importance of temperature for human beings, in the era of human civilization, the exploration and research of temperature began. However, because the ancients lacked the support and help of science and technology, they could only explore and study the temperature from the macroscopic aspect, and naturally they could not get the essence of temperature.
Until mankind entered the era of science and technology, we have been constantly studying and exploring temperature, and finally understand the nature of temperature change. With the continuous progress of human science and technology, we also continue to create a high temperature. On May 27, 1994, the Plasma Physics Laboratory of Princeton University in New Jersey created the highest temperature limit that human beings can reach, which is 510 million degrees Celsius.
This is the highest temperature produced by scientists using a tokamak nuclear fusion reactor, using a plasma mixture of deuterium and tritium. The high temperature of 510 million degrees centigrade makes many people feel incredible. This is the power of science and technology. While marveling at this incredible temperature, some people have such a question: what materials can withstand such a high temperature?
I believe many friends know that the most powerful high temperature resistant material of human beings can only withstand the high temperature of more than 3000 degrees Celsius, no matter how high it is. Due to the limitation of high temperature resistant materials, many human technologies can not be realized. For example, controllable nuclear fusion needs a very powerful high temperature resistant material, but human beings can not create such a material at present.
Since human’s high temperature resistant materials can only resist thousands of degrees at most, how can the high temperature of 510 million degrees Celsius be created, and what kind of materials can resist it? I believe many friends have such doubts. For this puzzle, let’s make some simple analysis and research.
In fact, it’s not difficult to understand this puzzle. As long as we have a certain understanding of the nature of temperature, the answer will come out. So what is the essence of temperature? I believe that we know that there are small partners. The key is the molecular movement.
Macro physics defines temperature as follows: temperature is the physical quantity that represents the degree of cold and hot of an object, while in micro physics, temperature also has a definition: it is mainly the intensity of the thermal motion of molecules. We all know that the essence of many macro things need to find the answer in the micro world, so does the change of temperature.
The essence of temperature is actually the thermal motion of molecules. When the thermal motion of molecules becomes more and more intense, the temperature of objects will continue to rise. On the contrary, when the speed of thermal motion of molecules continues to decrease, the temperature of objects will continue to decrease. There is a theoretical limit to the slowing down of molecular thermal motion, that is, to stop. When the molecule is no longer moving, the temperature will reach the lowest, which is known as absolute zero.
However, from quantum mechanics, we understand that the motion of particles can not stop completely, so absolute zero is only a theoretical limit, which can never be realized in the real world. Now we understand that the essence of temperature change is the thermal movement of molecules. In fact, it has another meaning, that is, to reflect the temperature, a large number of molecules must participate.
If the number of molecules is very small or there is no space for molecules, then the reflection of temperature will be very weak or even completely impossible. Let’s take the process of sunlight from the sun to the earth. In the process of solar energy particles from the sun to the earth, it is difficult to really reflect its temperature in space. The reason is that in a vacuum environment in space, the density of particles is very small.
So, the background temperature of the universe is so low, and we stand outside the earth, you can’t really feel the high temperature of the sun. However, when the sun’s energy particles enter the earth’s atmosphere, it will completely change. At this time, a large number of particles in the atmosphere are impacted by the energy, their kinetic energy will continue to increase, and their thermal motion will be fierce. At this time, the temperature of the atmosphere will rise, and the temperature of the earth will also begin to rise.
For example, in our daily life, the reason why we can feel cold and hot is that the human body itself is a collection of particles. When energy particles enter the human body, the thermal motion of molecules in the human body will change. At this time, we can feel cold and hot. The reason why there is body temperature in the human body is also because there is energy in the human body, which intensifies the thermal movement of molecules in the body, thus increasing the temperature in the body.
After knowing all this, let’s look at the high temperature of 510 million degrees centigrade created by scientists in the laboratory. How did this temperature come from? In fact, scientists get it by accelerating the impact of particles. As we all know, according to Einstein’s theory of relativity, when the speed of an object increases, its kinetic energy also increases.
The main reason why the asteroid impacts the earth and destroys the sky and the earth is that the asteroid shuttles through the space and gets a very high speed. After it hits the ground at such a speed, it will produce the energy to destroy the sky and the earth. When the speed of an object is infinitely close to the speed of light, the energy will also be close to infinity. At present, only accelerating particles can make the speed infinitely close to the speed of light.
Therefore, through the particle accelerator, we can accelerate the particles to an infinite speed close to the speed of light, and then two particles collide, which will produce a strong energy, which can also be expressed by temperature. However, this temperature can not be really reflected. The reason is very simple. The number of particles is too small. When scientists carry out particle collision experiments, they just let two particles collide.
With such a small number of particles, there will be no so-called molecular thermal motion. Therefore, even if a high temperature of 510 million degrees Celsius is generated in the accelerator, this high temperature can not really be reflected. It is only a numerical value, so it will not have a great impact on the material. That’s why there are materials that can withstand temperatures of 510 million degrees Celsius.
This result actually reminds us of a kind of powerful detector that may be realized in the future. This kind of detector can enter into the star to explore. I believe many friends know that the temperature of the sun’s surface is about 6000 degrees centigrade, and the temperature of the center is about 20 million degrees centigrade. Such a high temperature looks very high, but compared with the high temperature of 510 million degrees Celsius created by human beings, it is not worth mentioning at all.
But in front of the highest temperature created by human beings, the negligible temperature blocks the pace of human exploration of the sun. Because we have no materials to withstand the high temperature of the sun’s surface and interior, even if human beings have made breakthrough progress in Materials Science in the future, and can resist the high temperature of tens of thousands of degrees, we may still be unable to resist the high temperature of tens of millions of degrees in the center of the sun.
Therefore, it is estimated that it is very difficult to enter the interior of the sun through materials. Even if it can be done, it may also require human beings to develop science and technology to a very high level. It will take a long time, so is there any other way to do it? In fact, there is another way that may be able to do it, that is to isolate the high temperature of the sun.
The reason why the ultra-high temperature of the sun will damage the detector is that the detector itself is a molecular aggregate. After the energy of the sun contacts the detector, it will intensify the molecular thermal movement, so as to decompose the detector, so that we can not go deep into the sun.
But we can create an energy device where there are no molecules within this energy mask. In this case, the energy of the sun can not reflect its terrible high temperature. The detector is wrapped in the inner part of the energy shield, so it will not be affected by the high temperature inside the sun, so we can easily explore outside the sun.
Perhaps the above method is the way that human beings can really hope to enter the interior of the sun in the future. As long as it is realized, we can not only explore the interior of the sun, but also explore the interior of other stars. We should know that in the family of stars in the universe, the sun is only a small person, and those stars with greater mass are the most valuable ones to explore. Maybe we can peek some secrets of the universe from the interior of massive stars. We are looking forward to this day.
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