Why can the highest temperature reach 140 million degrees centigrade and the lowest is – 273 degrees centigrade?

I believe my friends are not unfamiliar with the word temperature, it exists in the whole world, the whole universe. We deal with temperature every day and every moment. It exists in all things, in the human body, in the universe.

When we were in middle school, the physics teacher told us: the temperature has high and low, the lowest temperature is absolute zero, about minus 273.15 degrees Celsius, and this is only a theoretical lower limit, which is the lowest limit temperature that can not be reached. At the same time, the physics teacher also told us that there is no upper limit for the temperature. Therefore, in many people’s cognition, temperature has a lower limit, but no upper limit.

However, with the continuous progress of our study, we later learned that there is a theoretical upper limit for the temperature, which is the Planck temperature, about 140 million degrees Celsius. Maybe many people are scared by such a huge number. Can the maximum temperature be so high? So some people have such a question: why can the highest temperature reach 140 million degrees centigrade, while the lowest temperature is – 273.15 degrees centigrade?

The difference between the lowest absolute zero and the highest Planck temperature is too big. So a lot of people are very curious, how do absolute zero and Planck scientists calculate it? To understand the calculation method of these two limit temperatures, we must first have a preliminary understanding of the nature of temperature.


Before human beings entered the era of science and technology, we had no idea of the nature of temperature. At that time, we only knew that temperature was given by nature. We could feel the high and low temperature, but we couldn’t figure out what the temperature was?

Until mankind entered the era of science and technology, scientists began to be interested in the ubiquitous temperature, and began to explore the mystery of temperature. After the efforts of scientists to study, and finally understand the temperature is what?

From the macro point of view, temperature is used to characterize the degree of cold and hot objects. The reason why there is heat in objects is that there is thermal motion in various particles of the material. Therefore, temperature essentially reflects the intensity of thermal motion of micro particles.

The motion of particles is fast and slow. As the thermal motion of particles becomes slower and slower, the temperature of the object is also decreasing. The particle motion can not be infinitely slow down, it has a limit value, that is stationary. When the motion of particles stops completely, the temperature reaches the lower limit, which is what we call absolute zero.


However, the thermal motion of particles, no matter how fast or slow, will never stop. Therefore, absolute zero is only a theoretical lower limit. In reality, there is no such limit temperature. Why can’t the thermal motion of particles stop? That’s because once a particle stops moving, its position and velocity become a certain value, which contradicts the principle of uncertainty in quantum mechanics.

Although the value of absolute zero seems not big, but when the temperature keeps approaching this value, the power is huge and terrible. For example, the background radiation temperature of the universe is 270 degrees below zero, which is close to absolute zero. In such a low temperature environment, if we appear in the universe without any protection, we will soon be frozen into popsicles. Freezing into popsicles is not the most terrible. What’s more terrible is that as long as we shake it gently, it will break into countless pieces immediately.

Above this kind of situation, think let people feel afraid, visible close to absolute zero temperature is very terrible. It is because of this terrible ultra-low temperature, it is also very important for human beings. In the future, this temperature will have a very wide range of applications, such as freezing the human body, allowing a person to enter hibernation, can live for hundreds of years, thousands of years or more. Another important application is the way of environmental protection after human death.

Since absolute zero is a theoretical value, how is its specific value calculated? According to Charlie’s law, for any ideal gas, as long as the volume remains constant, the ratio of pressure to temperature is constant. If the pressure and temperature parameters are measured, a linear equation can be obtained. By extrapolating the equation, the absolute zero degree can be calculated, which is – 273.15 ℃.


With absolute zero, let’s talk about the terrible Planck temperature. One might say, is there an upper limit to the intensity of thermal motion of particles? Isn’t it possible to exercise infinitely? In the past, people thought that there was no upper limit for the motion of particles, so there was no upper limit for the temperature.

But according to the theory of relativity, there is a limit to the speed of an object, which is the speed of light. So the basic particles that make up an object also have the speed limit of light. As the intensity of particle motion continues to accelerate, its maximum value is infinitely close to the speed of light. At this time, the kinetic energy of particles will tend to infinity.

Some people may say that since the kinetic energy of particles tends to infinity, can’t the temperature also tend to infinity? In fact, this is not the case. When the temperature reaches a certain level, gravity will be strong enough to unify with other basic forces, and no matter, even quarks and other basic particles, can exist. So higher temperatures are meaningless.

Therefore, the limit temperature before the temperature is meaningless is the maximum temperature, that is, the Planck temperature, with a specific value of 140 million degrees Celsius. So is the Planck temperature the same as absolute zero, just a theoretical limit temperature? Of course not. Although we can’t see the Planck temperature in the universe now, the temperature at the moment of the big bang reached 140 million degrees Celsius.


Some may ask: what is the point of such a high Planck temperature? In fact, the value of ultra-high temperature is much higher than that of ultra-low temperature. Because super high temperature can create matter, I believe many friends know Einstein’s mass energy equation.

According to the mass energy equation, we know that energy and matter can be transformed into each other, but in our reality, we only see the situation that matter is transformed into energy, but we can’t see the situation that energy is transformed into matter. Why?

The main reason why we can’t see the transformation of energy into material is that the energy value can’t meet the requirements. If energy wants to be transformed into material, it needs instant super energy explosion. The significance of Planck temperature is extraordinary because it created the original basic matter of the universe.

I believe many people are very curious, how did the original matter of the universe come from? In fact, these original universes came from the transformation of energy, that is, at the moment of the big bang, 140 million Planck temperatures were generated, and this super energy was transformed into various basic substances.


Therefore, ultra-high temperature can create matter. If we can study the ultra-high temperature infinitely close to the Planck temperature, we have the hope to realize the ability of energy to transform matter. At that time, human civilization may become a really powerful super civilization in the universe.

Of course, it is much more difficult to achieve an ultra-high temperature infinitely close to the Planck temperature than to achieve an ultra-low temperature close to absolute zero. The two are not in the same order of magnitude. When we understand the meaning of Planck temperature, once again let us doubt the origin of the universe.

Is our universe natural or man-made? If human beings can achieve Planck temperature in the future, does that mean that at that time, we can control all things and become the creator God, so as to create a universe? Theoretically, it is possible. If human beings can do it in the infinite future, then super civilization outside the universe can also do it. Our universe is likely to be created.

Guys, what do you think of this? Welcome to leave a message below to discuss and express your opinions.

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