This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.
There are eight planets in the solar system. There are two planets in the habitable zone with the earth. They are Venus and Mars. Among them, Venus is closest to the earth, and its geological structure is the most similar to the earth. It is called the sister planet of the earth.
Venus is the second nearest planet to the sun. The ancient Romans called it Venus, while the ancient Chinese called it Changgeng, Qiming, Taibai or Taibai Venus. Its mass is similar to that of the earth, about four fifths of that of the earth, with a radius of 6073 km, only 300 km smaller than that of the earth, and its volume is 0.88 times that of the earth. In theory, two planets that are so close to each other are in the same habitable zone and should have very similar ecological environment.
But the actual situation is totally different. The earth is a beautiful planet of life, while Mars is a purgatory planet with surface temperature as high as 460 ℃. Why did Venus become the purgatory planet? In order to explore the mysteries of Venus, human beings began a series of exploration of Venus soon after they came out of the earth.
Perhaps many people only remember that the most explorations and explorations of Mars by human beings are the most. But in fact, as soon as human beings stepped out of the earth, Venus was the first planet to be explored, and scientists have launched dozens of probes to Venus, no less than Mars. So why did scientists give up Venus exploration and focus on Mars? Is Venus nothing to detect?
Of course not. In fact, scientists attach more importance to Venus than to Mars. The main reason for abandoning Venus is that the harsh environment of Venus makes it impossible for us to start. First of all, Venus has a very thick atmosphere, and there is also a layer of acid rain. The thick atmosphere blocks the detection of orbital probes, making it difficult for us to see its surface through the atmosphere of Venus.
If you can’t get to the surface through the orbiter, you can only get to the landing surface. However, the environment on the surface of Venus is even worse. The ultra-high temperature or acid rain makes it difficult for the probe to successfully land on Mars. Even if it barely lands, the survival time is very short, no more than two hours. So after several attempts to land, scientists found that the success rate was too low and the survival rate was too low, so they finally had to give up the Venus exploration and focus on Mars.
Although scientists changed their focus from Venus to Mars, the research on Mars did not stop, and the data collected by the probe became important reference data for scientists to understand and study Venus.
Venus has many secrets. It is far more mysterious than Mars. What scientists want to understand most is why Venus became like this? According to scientists’ conjecture, Venus was not born like this. Mars in ancient times may have been a beautiful blue planet, just like the earth. There is also a large amount of liquid water on the surface, and life may have been born. Then why did it become like this?
According to the probe’s detection of Venus, we know that the average temperature on the surface of Venus is 462 degrees Celsius, and the carbon dioxide content in the atmosphere is more than 96%. The whole planet is covered with a thick sulfuric acid cloud, and the environment is as terrible as hell. Carbon dioxide is a kind of greenhouse gas. The higher its content, the higher the temperature of the planet’s surface. So how did the high carbon dioxide content in Venus’ atmosphere come about?
Scientists have studied that Venus may be a large number of volcanic eruptions released, you know Venus is a volcanic planet. At present, tens of thousands of Mars have been found in the preliminary exploration, and more have not been found. Because there are so many Venus volcanoes, when they erupt in large quantities, they will release a lot of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
Is there any other reason for Venus to be like this? A new study by scientists from NASA, the University of Bangor and the University of Washington shows that the ancient ocean itself may be responsible for the great changes in Venus. Why do you say that?
According to scientists, the rotation of Venus is very slow. A Venus day is 243 Earth days, equivalent to 2 / 3 Earth years. Interestingly, it takes 225 Earth days for Venus to orbit the sun. In other words, a day on Venus is longer than a year. The impact of such a slow rotation on the ocean is enormous. As we all know, the tidal force of the earth’s oceans mainly comes from the moon. This is a very mild and beneficial tidal force, which makes the earth have a relatively good ecological environment.
Venus has no satellite, and its ocean tidal force comes from the sun. You know, the sun is a huge star with a mass of 99.86% of the total mass of the solar system. If the tidal force of the ocean comes from it, the effect on a planet is to slow down its rotation. Scientists believe that in ancient times, Venus and the earth are similar to the ecological environment of the planet, also has a lot of liquid water resources of the two planets, under the influence of tidal force, its rotation speed is also changing.
The difference is that the earth’s ocean tidal force comes from the natural satellite moon, which has a relatively small gravity, so the earth’s rotation speed will increase by 20 seconds every million years. However, the tidal force of Venus ocean comes from the sun. Under the influence of such a huge gravity, its rotation speed can not be faster and slower.
Moreover, we also know that the rotation of Venus is completely opposite to that of the earth, which is the only one of the planets in the solar system. The reason for this may also be affected by the tidal force of the sun. In order to study how the Venus ocean affects its own rotation, the research team led by Mattias green used computer simulation to set different ocean depths and rotation speeds for the virtual Venus, and finally found that if the tides in the Venus ocean were large enough, the rotation of the planet would slow down. In the most extreme case, the rotation period increases by 72 Earth days per million years! This means that it will only take 10 to 50 million years to reach the current rotational speed.
Through the simulation experiments of scientists, it is confirmed that the strong tidal force can significantly affect the rotation speed of the planet and make it slow down. If the planet’s rotation is getting slower and slower, the final result is that the magnetic field disappears, so Venus now has no magnetic field. For planets in the habitable zone, once the magnetic field is lost, it is a fatal danger.
Without the protection of the magnetic field, the atmosphere will be gradually stripped off. At this time, the solar wind will drive straight in, and the strong radiation will cause the ocean to evaporate rapidly. Finally, Venus will become a terrible planet. The reason why Venus still has such a thick atmosphere may be due to the large number of volcanoes on its surface, which erupt in large quantities, and a large amount of gas and dust form a thicker and heavier atmosphere.
However, 96% of this atmosphere is carbon dioxide, which aggravates the rise of surface temperature. That’s why we have the purgatory temperature of 460 degrees Celsius. However, some scientists speculate that Venus still retains a glimmer of vitality, and the mysterious black spots at the top of the atmosphere may be a sign of the existence of certain microorganisms.
In this way, the earth can become a beautiful planet of life with good rotation speed, and one of the important contributions is the moon. The relatively large mass of the moon itself also brings the earth appropriate tidal force. Without the moon, the earth’s ocean would need the sun to provide the tidal force, and at that time, the earth’s rotation speed might also slow down.
If this is the case, the evolution and evolution of life on earth may also be interrupted, and the beautiful blue planet will gradually become barren and lose its hotbed of life. Thus, it can be seen that the earth is very lucky to be a planet of life. At the same time, it also shows that the planets in the habitable zone may not be able to become a planet of life. Without all kinds of coincidences and luck, they will eventually become barren planets like Venus and Mars.
Although Mars is still the key target of human beings, with the rapid development of science and technology, scientists will return to Venus to uncover a series of Secrets of Venus when more advanced probes are available in the future. In fact, understanding the evolution of Venus is also for the sake of the earth, so that we can make prevention in advance, so that the earth can avoid entering the path of Venus.
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