How to judge whether the child is the father’s own flesh and blood? In the eyes of many people, the only thing that can prove the blood relationship is DNA, and DNA is also the basic code of all life on the earth. If all life have the same code, can we say that all living things on the earth have a common ancestor? You may think this is ridiculous, but in fact, the DNA codes of all different organisms are similar. For example, the fruit we often see, banana, contains 60% of the DNA that is similar to us.
Banana gene is similar to human, is it nonsense? What’s the difference between DNA and gene?
Is the similarity between humans and bananas true? Why do bananas have human genes? Where does this statistic come from? Is this nonsense? No matter how you look at this problem, this is the fact, and relevant scientific research shows that the genetic similarity between humans and plants has reached 50%, among many plants, bananas have been included. There are two versions of it
50% DNA similarity
50% gene similarity
What’s the difference between the two?
The relationship between DNA and gene: inclusion and inclusion
In the earth, genes have a very special significance for organisms, many genetic factors are transmitted through genes. For a long time, scientists have not given up the study of DNA and gene. DNA is the molecule of DNA, which is mainly composed of two long strands connected by deoxynucleotides, and the structure of helix. It is an important genetic material in biology. Although gene is also an effective DNA fragment, it only accounts for 2% of DNA.
For example: the relationship between DNA and gene is like the relationship between us and cousins. Cousins are generally relatives of the mother’s family. Although there is no such close blood relationship as cousins, we are also inextricably linked with cousins. As the saying goes, cousins are three thousand miles away and cousins are five hundred years old. And the relationship between DNA and gene is the relationship between us and cousins, cousins, cousins. What is the relationship between our 50% genes similar to banana and DNA? This is a genetic effect, which means that humans and bananas share only 1% of their DNA, not 50%. In addition to 2% of the proteins, 8% of the DNA is composed of gene regulatory regions, which is like a switch controlling when genes turn off and on. Most of the remaining DNA basically has no function, also known as junk DNA.
Humans and bananas may be related
We regard DNA as a whole. In this whole, except for a few “beneficial” DNA, the rest is junk DNA, which can also be called “death gene”. How is this useless DNA formed?
In fact, it is a kind of gene mutation in the process of evolution, unable to make protein. There is an inevitable connection between us and bananas, including other plants and animals, that is, we all have a common ancestor. The genes of us and bananas are split and inherited from this ancestor. Even we can understand that bananas and us have “relatives”.
The common ancestor, Luca, evolved into a single celled organism
Some netizens can’t help asking, “what species are the ancestors of humans and bananas?” In the study of living cells, scientists found that the common ancestor of human, plant (banana) and animal is Luca. Luka is the ancestor of a single cell. It is a kind of microorganism. Most scientists believe that it mainly comes from the shallow sea. A few scientists believe that it was born from the cracks of volcanic rocks. A variety of mineral elements are its main food. In the early stage of evolution, Luca’s life characteristics were very simple, even the cell membrane did not exist. With the passage of time, Luca gradually evolved into single cell life. Through the continuous division, the number of single cell life is more and more, which finally opens a new chapter for the biological evolution of the earth, and achieves all things on the earth.
The picture shows mitochondria
Cell phagocytosis evolved into mitochondria, forming multicellular and complex life.
Everything on the earth, as long as there is life, is composed of single cells. In the history of the earth, there was only one phagocytosis event. In the process of single cell evolution, one single cell life swallowed up another single cell life. The phagocytized single cell life did not digest in time in the host body, but coexisted with the single cell in the host body, And to provide energy for it, it gradually evolved into mitochondria. This event of mutual phagocytosis between single cell and single cell occurred more than one billion years ago, and so far it only happened once. After the evolution and development of mitochondrial cells, it gradually became multicellular and complex cellular life, just like all animals and plants in our new Confucianism are eukaryotic Biology. In other words, all the ancestors of multicellular life in the world are derived from the previous single cell phagocytosis.
Humans have preserved genes similar to bananas, mainly involved in repairing and producing energy
The basic reason why banana like genes are preserved in human body is that these genes can produce some energy for human body or repair damaged cells. Like Luca, the common ancestor of humans and bananas, it needs energy conversion in the process of evolution, and half of the genes are the same genes of humans and bananas, but DNA is not. In many scientific experiments, why do humans do experiments with mice? The experimental results are only valid because of the high coincidence rate of its genes with those of us.
On earth, besides bananas, which animal or plant genes are we similar to?
1. The similarity with chicken is 60%
The wild ancestors of modern domestic chickens are called protochickens. Although chickens are feathered and egg laying animals, which are very different from human beings, the reproductive mode of chickens is completely different from that of mammals. Through scientific genetic experiments, scientists found that the protein and bone of chickens are very similar to mammals, among which there are 60% genes similar to human beings.
The similarity with chimpanzees is 96%
Chimpanzee is very good at imitation. For example, he can use some tools to achieve a certain purpose, and even remember simple numbers to do mathematical problems. Chimpanzees also have the ability to think. From a biological point of view, the genetic similarity between chimpanzees and humans is as high as 96%. In the international community, chimpanzees are also classified into Hominidae. Chimpanzees are considered to be a kind of human beings and are regarded as human brothers. However, from the perspective of intellectual development, the difference between chimpanzees and humans is huge, so the chimpanzee into the hominid, also caused controversy in the academic community.
In 2007, the science journal published an article about the high similarity of human and chimpanzee DNA. In this article, the author published the comparison results with DNA sequence, and thought that the gene difference between human and chimpanzee was not big, only 5%. However, this matter was also opposed by a few scientists. Other scientists thought that DNA sequence data should not be used as a reference object, but should be selected instead Scientists believe that the reason why humans have embarked on the road of developing intelligence is due to the different experiences of humans and chimpanzees. There should be a special gene in the human body, which will be triggered only after certain conditions are met, so as to open the door of human intelligence and thinking. At present, this argument is controversial, but it runs counter to evolutionists. After all, every move of chimpanzees is closely related to human genes.
The picture shows the chimpanzee
The similarity between human and fruit fly is 60%
Drosophila is one of the small flies in the family Drosophilidae. There are many kinds of Drosophila, mainly including Drosophila melanogaster, cherry Drosophila melanogaster and so on. Drosophila melanogaster is relatively small, which is about 4 mm, and the smallest is only 2 mm. Its color ranges from yellow to brown and black. Drosophila melanogaster is all over the world, especially in humid and geothermal areas. Fruit flies like the smell of fermented fruit, despite its small size, but it can fly anywhere in the world. Compared with other organisms, the reproductive capacity of fruit flies is very strong. The life cycle of fruit flies is very short. It takes only eight days from egg to adult, which means that a ripe tomato can nourish a small group of fruit flies in a week. Once there are flies in the room, it is not easy to eliminate them.
In scientific research, Drosophila has become the most attractive research object in the field of biology. Despite its small size, its genes are very complex, covering a large number of life activities shared by organisms, especially the genes related to growth and development. In the study of the mechanism of Drosophila and human brain, scientists used genomic data to identify the genes that play a major role in the formation of brain circuits. These genes are responsible for the basic movement of white matter in Drosophila and human brain. This also shows that Drosophila and human have the same basic genetic mechanism, and these brain regions are developed through this mechanism.
The similarity between human and pig is 60%
Pig, a cute and intelligent animal, has become the most common food on the human table. However, some experts say that there are 112 gene mutations in pigs, which are similar to those in humans. Human has 23 pairs of chromosomes, including more than 20000 genes, a total of more than 3 billion base pairs. In pigs, most of these gene mutations are related to diseases. This disease is similar to some diseases that are difficult to treat, such as diabetes, obesity, Parkinson’s disease and so on. For example, there is only one amino acid difference between human and pig’s insulin, and there are only three amino acids difference between human and cow’s insulin. Therefore, the effect of using pig’s insulin is better than that of using cow’s insulin in the early treatment of diabetes.
From the origin of life on the earth, we can see that human beings and all living things on the earth are inextricably linked. Now it seems that human beings and living things on the earth have a common ancestor: microorganisms, which means that human beings are not alien species. Some people thought that we humans came from other planets before, but now it seems that this view is not reliable.