After human beings were born millions of years ago, they entered human civilization 5000 years ago through gradual evolution and development. Although human civilization appeared 5000 years ago, its development speed is not fast. For thousands of years, human civilization has been in the era of handicraft and cold weapons. People’s lives have not been much improved.
What really determines the fate of mankind is the beginning of the first industrial revolution 300 years ago. In the 1860s, mankind started the first industrial revolution. At the same time, it also marks that mankind has entered the road of scientific and technological development, got rid of the past manual age and began to develop into the machine age.
With the development of science and technology, human civilization has finally ushered in rapid development. Although it has only developed more than 300 years of science and technology, the achievements are huge. People’s quality of life is getting higher and higher. At the same time, human beings have realized the dream of flying to the sky, stepped out of the earth and began to explore the universe.
The rapid development of human science and technology is also the rapid development of energy. From the day of human birth, we have begun to use the resources left by nature, but the utilization rate of resources in ancient times was very low. It was not until human beings entered the era of science and technology that they began to make great use of resources. Continuously transform the earth’s resources into productive forces and promote the rapid development of science and technology.
In fact, the era of science and technology is also the era of energy. If science and technology want to make continuous progress, then its application in energy should be continuously improved. In the 300 years since human beings entered the era of science and technology, they still use the non renewable resources left by nature. These resources are constantly formed by the earth’s crustal movement in the long years, such as coal, oil, natural gas and so on.
There are two disadvantages of these traditional energy sources. One is that their resources are limited and non renewable. If they are used less, they will not be used up. Another drawback is that they pollute a lot. When traditional energy is burned, it will release carbon dioxide and other toxic gases. Whether it is carbon dioxide or other toxic gases, it will continue to cause damage to the earth’s ecological environment.
Now the global temperature is rising, the natural disasters are increasing, the reason is that the ecology is constantly being destroyed, and the main reason for ecological destruction is the extensive use of traditional chemical combustion. Moreover, the development of science and technology of human beings has obviously begun to slow down. The main reason is that there is no more powerful new energy. Therefore, if human science and technology want to make another leap forward progress, it needs a new energy that can completely replace the traditional energy. So what is this energy?
Many people may have thought that this energy is the controllable nuclear fusion technology that scientists have been studying and exploring. Some people may ask: why do scientists actively explore and study nuclear fusion technology? There are two main reasons. The first is to protect the earth so that human civilization can continue. I believe you can see that the deterioration rate of the earth’s ecological environment is very fast, the atmospheric carbon dioxide content is reaching a new high every year, and the global temperature is also rising.
Once the earth’s ecology completely collapses, it will be irreversible ecological restoration waiting for the earth. Slowly, the earth may become a barren planet like Mars. Once the earth’s ecology is completely destroyed and becomes an environment unable to adapt to human survival, where will human beings go? Some people may say that we can emigrate to Mars, to planets outside the solar system.
But if you want to emigrate to other planets, you need more powerful spacecraft, faster spacecraft, and other technologies, such as gravity technology. If the spaceship has no artificial gravity, it is impossible to realize the long voyage across the interstellar space. People can only stay for a short time on the spaceship without gravity or microgravity, but certainly not for a long time. To achieve this, we need to return to stronger energy technology. Our current energy is definitely not good.
The second reason is the future exploration of the universe, the realization of interstellar migration and interstellar navigation. The universe is so vast that we can’t imagine it. The diameter of the solar system is two light-years, and the nearest nearby galaxy is four light-years away. When we go out of the solar system and explore the outer space, the spacecraft must have a faster speed, and the slowest speed is sub light speed.
When mankind enters the era of science and technology, why can the speed of transportation continue to improve? An important reason is the continuous development and improvement of energy. In the same way, if you want to fly at sub light speed in the universe, you need more powerful energy, and there are many kinds of energy, such as nuclear fusion, antimatter, dark matter and so on.
In the future, only controllable nuclear fusion can be realized as soon as possible. Antimatter and dark matter are still in the stage of theoretical exploration. I believe we are not unfamiliar with nuclear energy. Einstein is the founder of nuclear energy. The emergence of nuclear energy has brought a great leap forward to human civilization, and also further human space exploration program.
There are two applications of nuclear energy, one is nuclear fission, the other is nuclear fusion. Nuclear fission is the splitting of heavy nuclei into light nuclei, which produces huge energy. Nuclear fusion is to “polymerize” two light nuclei into a heavy nucleus. We know that energy is conserved, and the “lost” mass will be transformed into huge energy, and the energy is higher than that of nuclear fission.
However, the occurrence of nuclear fission will release nuclear pollution, which means its application is very limited, and its energy is much worse than that of nuclear fusion. Nuclear fusion is different, it can be said to be a perfect energy. There are two advantages of nuclear fusion. One is that its reaction product is only inert gas helium, which is non-toxic and harmless. Even in the process of operation, it can be shut down immediately, rarely producing radioactive waste or uncontrollable negative effects.
The second advantage is that the raw materials are easy to obtain. After all, the elements needed for fusion reaction widely exist in seawater, and the earth is short of everything, the least of which is seawater. Nuclear fusion is such a perfect energy source, which naturally makes people expect very much, but it is not easy to realize it.
Scientists began to study it as early as 50 years ago. At that time, some scientists said that in another 50 years, human beings could break through nuclear fusion and enter the era of nuclear fusion energy. But now 50 years later, scientists dare not say that in another 50 years, human beings will enter the era of nuclear fusion. In order to achieve preliminary controllable fusion, the most important two points are temperature and material. The temperature required to ignite a nuclear fusion device is 100 million degrees centigrade, but we have only raised it to 55 million degrees centigrade. This achievement was created by Chinese scientists.
To be able to withstand the high temperature of 100 million degrees, we need stronger high temperature resistant materials. At present, we are far away from achieving this. It can be seen that even if tomorrow’s technology can be upgraded to 100 million degrees, if the materials can not be realized, controllable nuclear fusion will not be successful.
Of course, as long as human beings continue to work hard, controllable nuclear fusion technology will be realized in the future. The time required may not be too short or too long. It is a bit exaggeration to say that controllable nuclear polymerization technology will be realized in the next few decades. But if it takes thousands of years to realize it, it depends too much on human wisdom. Controllable nuclear fusion technology is likely to be initially realized in the next hundred years or so, but it will take a longer time, possibly hundreds of years, to use stones as raw materials for nuclear fusion, as in wandering earth.
As long as human beings realize controllable nuclear fusion technology, the earth’s pollution problem can be solved. Without pollution sources, the earth’s ecosystem will slowly repair itself. With the nuclear fusion engine, the speed of the spacecraft can also be qualitatively improved, and it is possible to realize the preliminary sub light speed flight. It is no longer a dream to go out of the solar system, and we may also open the way to emigration and colonization. Human civilization will enter the initial interstellar civilization and open a new chapter.
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