The earth is a beautiful blue planet, a home where human beings have lived for millions of years, and also a planet rich in water resources. The water on the earth’s surface accounts for 71% of the global area. With such a huge water content, when the natural rainy season comes, the rainfall is also very large, especially in the south. Every summer’s rainy season, rainstorms of different sizes will occur, leading to floods, landslides and other natural disasters.
2019 is an El Nino year, a year of extreme climate change. Many friends have long predicted that when the rainy season comes this year, the rainfall in the South will certainly be very heavy, which will also lead to greater flood disasters. In fact, since July, many areas in southern China have experienced heavy rainfall, especially in recent days, which lasts for a long time. According to the latest weather forecast, Hunan will encounter heavy rainfall in the next 10 days.
Such a strong and continuous heavy rainfall has caused floods everywhere in Hunan. Many houses and fields have been drowned and more than one million people have been affected. This is just the beginning of the rainy season. Every year, the rainy season usually lasts for two months, that is, July and August. From this, we can see that this year’s south is very difficult.
Compared with the continuous rainstorm in the south, many areas in the North suffered from continuous drought, and many farmland died of drought due to no rain. Waterlogging in the South and drought in the north have been a big problem since ancient times. In order to solve the problem of water shortage in the north, China put forward a strategic major project in 1952, which is the south to north water diversion.
After experts analyzed and compared more than 50 schemes, a scheme was finally determined, and then construction began. The whole project planning area involves 438 million people, and the scale of water diversion is 44.8 billion cubic meters. The total length of the East, middle and West trunk lines planned for the project is 4350 km. The total length of the trunk line of the first phase of the East and middle route project is 2899 km, and the first-class auxiliary canals of six provinces and cities along the line are about 2700 km.
This is a great worldwide work. From 1952 to the end of 2014, the first phase of the middle line work was officially put into operation. After 62 years, it took a lot of human and material resources to complete it. Zibi has basically solved the problem of water shortage in the north. Such a great work has attracted the attention of the world and made the Chinese people proud.
Many people all over the world are studying the south to North Water Diversion Project in China. Some people have asked such a question: why does the south to North Water Diversion Project adopt open channel instead of underground pipeline? Maybe many people think that open channels are the rivers that we usually see. When water passes through these rivers, they are exposed to the sun. They will lose a lot of water every day, occupy a lot of land, and face all kinds of pollution and midway extraction.
If it is to use underground pipeline, isn’t it more water saving and more benefits? Why not use underground channels to transport water? In fact, when the south to North Water Diversion Project was put forward in 1952, some experts also put forward such a plan, but it was finally rejected by more experts. The main reasons are as follows.
The first reason is the influence of topography. The South-to-North Water Diversion Project spans thousands of kilometers. For such a long distance, there is a great difference in the height of the terrain between the north and the south. If you want to transport water from the south to the north, you need to experience many different slopes. If the underground pipeline is used, a stepped slope is needed.
After the pipeline is adopted, it is necessary to pump the water from the low point pipeline to a high place in the mountains and plains. Many water towers need to be built. If it is good in the plain, the drop is not more than 100 meters. If it is to pass through the mountains, the drop is huge, and the difficulty will be very high. Moreover, the construction of these pumping facilities will consume a lot of electricity and capital. Therefore, it is impossible to use pipelines. Finally, experts chose the open diversion mode of river and canal.
The second reason is that considering the cold winter in the north, a large amount of drinking water is included in the south to North Water Diversion Project. In this case, it is impossible to add antifreeze into the water. The water without antifreeze may be frozen in the cold northern winter. If it is under underground management, once the water is frozen, the pipeline will be blocked. If it is serious, the pipe burst will occur, and the water transportation of the south to North Water Diversion Project will be forced to stop.
However, the use of canals is different. Because the river channel is very wide and deep, even in winter in the north, it will only freeze the river surface, and the water under the river surface can continue to flow, without affecting the transportation of water to the north. If some rivers are frozen and blocked for water transportation, the ice can be easily broken to ensure the smooth water transportation.
The third reason is to save time and effort, save a lot of money. We all know that there are many canals along the way that can be used after simple processing, and there is no need to re excavate the river for processing, which can not only save a lot of cost, but also save time. At the same time, the villagers can also use the water after these canals pass through the villages along the way.
Therefore, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project not only solves the problem of drinking water for people in the north, but also solves many problems of farmland drought, which greatly increases the yield of crops and increases the income of farmers in the north.
The fourth reason is that it is convenient for maintenance. Any project will inevitably fail in the later stage, especially in such a huge work as the south to North Water Diversion Project. There are so many links that naturally there are all kinds of problems. If the underground pipeline is used, once there is a problem, the maintenance is very troublesome and time-consuming. I believe some friends have experienced problems with underground pipelines, whether it’s natural gas pipelines or water supply management. Once there are problems, they need to dig up the ground and find the problem section by section, which is time-consuming and laborious.
Open channel is different, where there is a problem, a fault, it is easy to find, and maintenance is also convenient and easy, so that you can quickly eliminate the problem, to ensure the water transport. Thus, the South-to-North Water Diversion Project is a project of Fukuzawa Wandai. It has collected the comprehensive opinions of numerous designers, and finally came to a most reasonable design scheme.
For the people living in the north, thanks to the south to North Water Diversion Project, it makes the water shortage in the North no longer lack, and solves the water problem of hundreds of millions of people. Friends living in the South should also thank the south to North Water Diversion Project, which diverts a large amount of water from the south to a certain extent. Although the South still faces certain flood disasters every year, with the drainage of the south to North Water Diversion Project, the disaster has been reduced a lot. No, the current floods in the South may be more ferocious.
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