Why has the sun been burning for five billion years? How long will it burn

The earth is the home where human beings have lived for millions of years. In this beautiful blue planet, there are tens of millions of other kinds of life besides intelligent life. The origin of life on earth has always been a mystery. No matter how life on earth was born, it is closely related to the existence and care of the sun.

The solar system was born because of the sun, and the survival and development of life on earth can not do without the sun. The light and function of plants need the sun. The survival of herbivores can not do without plants, and carnivores also accept the favor of the sun. The survival of human beings can not do without the earth ecosystem, and nature can not do without the sun.

Therefore, people in ancient times worshipped the sun very much. Many tribes took the sun as a totem and thought it was the place where the gods lived. For the ancients, the sky is so mysterious and yearning, the sun is so dazzling, the ancients did not know what the sun is, thought that the sun is a part of the earth.


However, with the development of science and technology, we have advanced observation equipment. At this time, we can see the starry sky through the earth, and naturally know that the sun is actually a star, one of the stars with a galaxy coefficient of 100 billion.

Stars are very common in the universe. Their characteristic is that they can burn and emit dazzling light and radiation, which brings warmth and light to the cold and dark universe. It is the light and temperature of stars that lead to the birth of life. I believe that there are other living planets in the universe, and they have the same intelligent life as human beings. These living planets are likely to be in the habitable zone of stars, with suitable temperature and sunshine, just like the earth.

After entering space, people’s field of vision has been greatly broadened, especially the new understanding of stars. At this time, many people will have such a question: Why did the sun burn for 5 billion years? How long will it burn?

The earth was born 4.6 billion years ago, and the sun appeared much earlier than the earth, so the age of the sun is longer than the earth. Scientists estimate that the age of the sun is about 5 billion years, so it has been burning for 5 billion years now. Why can the sun burn so long? And look at the current situation of the sun, it’s still full of fuel and can burn for a long time.


In the early days, scientists believed that the energy of the sun was generated by combustion through some chemical reaction. You know, the combustion of any material requires fuel. This is a basic rule. If the sun can burn for 5 billion years, its burning must be very different. If it is chemical combustion, what kind of fuel will it be?

If the sun’s combustion is carried out by chemical reaction, then its life can also be calculated. Scientists calculated the age of the sun according to this way of production and found that if it was chemical combustion, the sun would have been extinguished millions of years ago, and it would not be burning vigorously as it is now. Therefore, the conclusion of chemical reaction productivity has been denied by scientists, and there must be a second and more advanced way of burning the sun.

At the beginning, scientists denied that the sun is a chemical combustion, and did not know what the second combustion method would be until the great physicist Einstein put forward the mass energy equation that affected the world. According to the mass energy equation, any object with mass must have the same amount of energy. Based on this equation of mass and energy, nuclear energy began to enter the human vision.


The powerful nuclear energy shocked the world at the end of World War II. People finally know the power of nuclear energy, especially the hydrogen bomb made by nuclear fusion, which is hundreds of times more powerful than the atomic bomb. When people realized the power of nuclear fusion, people began to make a new guess about the burning of the sun: nuclear fusion reaction. And this conjecture was quickly recognized by the scientific community, so far the sun’s combustion mode has been determined.

Scientists believe that the core of the sun is a huge nuclear power station, which is undergoing nuclear fusion all the time, and the photons produced by fusion are ejected from the inside to the surface of the sun. Therefore, the sun seems to be a big fireball burning, and only the powerful energy of nuclear fusion can keep the solar fuel burning for such a long time. The reaction of nuclear fusion is inseparable from hydrogen atoms, and there are a large number of hydrogen atoms in the sun. These hydrogen atoms fuse with each other, and huge energy is released in the process of fusion reaction.

Any material combustion needs raw materials, and the fuel required for solar fusion combustion is a large amount of hydrogen inside the sun. When the consumption of hydrogen is less and less, the sun’s combustion will become weaker and weaker, and eventually extinguish. Therefore, the sun’s combustion will not last forever, and it has time. According to the research and exploration of scientists, it is believed that the life of the sun is about 10 billion years It has been burning for 5 billion years now, and another 5 billion years will be the end of its life.

Of course, the extinction of stars will not completely die at the end of their lives, and they will continue to evolve into another powerful celestial body. According to the different mass of stars, there will be three different fates after their extinction. The final outcome of a small mass star like the sun is to evolve into a white dwarf, a medium mass star will evolve into a neutron star, and a large mass star will evolve into a stellar black hole.


The lifetime of a star is also closely related to its mass. The larger the mass, the more intense the nuclear fusion reaction, the faster the consumption of hydrogen, and the shorter the lifetime. The lifetime of massive stars is often only tens of millions of years, far less than that of the sun. From this point of view, we can also draw a conclusion: the planet that can give birth to life is likely to be in a galaxy with a mass like the sun.

The birth, evolution and evolution of life, and even the emergence of the final intelligent life, all need a long process. If the stars in their Galaxy have a short life span, they can’t wait for life, let alone intelligent life. Human beings appeared 4.6 billion years after the birth of the earth. If the life span of the sun is not long enough, human beings will not appear at all.

You know, once a star reaches the end of its life, it will not be as mild as it is now. It will continue to expand, devour the orbits of planets in the habitable zone, and finally collapse inward and evolve into different formations. Whether it becomes a white dwarf, a neutron star or a black hole, it will be a huge blow to galaxies. If it evolves into a black hole, then the galaxy is basically finished and will eventually be engulfed by the black hole.


Some people may worry that when the sun comes to the end of its life, it will devour the earth when it changes to a red giant. What about human beings? In fact, there is no need to worry about this. With the rapid development of human science and technology, it may only take tens of millions of years for us to cross the galaxy and colonize all over the galaxy. If the sun is about to go out in 5 billion years, human civilization may have gone out of the galaxy and explored more vast extragalactic space. The solar system is just the birthplace of human beings. When the solar system can’t survive, we can go to other galaxies to live.

Guys, what do you think of this? Welcome to leave a message below to discuss and express your opinions.

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