The universe is vast and vast, with numerous celestial bodies, in addition to our more common stars and planets, there are also some special mysterious celestial bodies, such as pulsars, neutron stars, black holes and so on. Among these special mysterious celestial bodies, black hole is the most special one.
Scientists have no definite answer to what a black hole is. As early as after the birth of Einstein’s general theory of relativity, it was predicted that there would be such a mysterious and powerful celestial body as a black hole. Although the black hole is solid, its mass is very huge. Scientists speculate that there may be a singularity with infinite mass and infinitesimal volume in the center of the black hole.
It is the existence of this singularity that makes the black hole a super gravitational celestial body. Its strong gravity collapses the surrounding space and makes the black hole a phagocytic beast. As long as any matter enters its horizon, it cannot escape, including light. Therefore, we can’t directly observe black holes, but some supermassive black holes form accretion disks in the process of swallowing the surrounding celestial bodies. The materials in accretion disks rub against each other and produce super strong radiation light waves, which radiate to the outside world.
It is precisely in the universe that scientists have observed the existence of such accretion disks that they have determined that black holes are really powerful celestial bodies in the universe. Although human beings have confirmed the existence of black holes, the pictures of black holes have never been taken. The pictures of black holes we see on the Internet are just the result of people’s imagination and artistic processing.
Scientists have always wanted to take the first picture of human black hole. This wish was finally realized on April 10, 2019. On this day, scientists released the first picture of human black hole. The black hole is about 55 million light-years away from the earth, and its mass is about 6.5 billion times that of the sun. It is a supermassive black hole, and its accretion disk is extremely bright. Since it is very far away from us, but it is still very bright We can still observe and take the first picture of a black hole in human history.
The first black hole photo of mankind looks a little blurred, and careful friends will find that the black hole brightness in the photo is not uniform. What’s the matter? It can be seen from the photos that the real picture of the black hole is very similar to the black hole that people imagined. There is an invisible black hole in the middle, and there are lights of different brightness around it.
In fact, the light we see around the black hole is actually the light emitted by the matter in the accretion disk of the black hole after intense friction and heating. The reason why the brightness is different is mainly related to the Doppler effect. This phenomenon can be explained by an interesting phenomenon in our life: when an ambulance comes head-on, the sound is higher than before; when the car leaves, the sound pitch is lower and lower. This phenomenon is called Doppler effect.
The Doppler effect is also suitable for light. The reason why the black hole in the picture is bright in the South and weak in the north is that the matter in the south is moving towards us, while the matter in the north is moving away from us, so the brightness in the south is higher than that in the North. Moreover, the accretion disk range of the black hole is not fixed, but always in a high-speed motion.
Therefore, when we look at the black hole accretion disk from a distance, we will find that the brightness of the black hole accretion disk varies unevenly. And from the angle of the earth, we can see that the spin direction of the black hole is clockwise. Scientists have also made great efforts to observe and photograph the black hole.
You know, although the accretion disk of a black hole is very bright, it is 6500 light-years away from the earth. If you want to take pictures of it, you need a telescope with an extremely large diameter. The way that scientists think of is to gather multiple telescopes around the world to build a “virtual” telescope with an aperture equal to the diameter of the earth.
It is with this super giant “virtual” telescope that we can initially take a real picture of a black hole. In the eyes of some people, this picture is so ordinary and a little fuzzy. Why do scientists attach so much importance to it? In fact, the publication of the first picture of human black hole represents extraordinary significance, which once again proves the correctness of Einstein’s theory of relativity.
At the same time, people know very little about black holes. Through this black hole photo, we can provide a lot of information from a scientific point of view, help us understand the real motion state of gas in the black hole region, and also understand some preliminary characteristics of black hole jet, black hole mass, rotation and so on.
Some people may think that there are few black holes in the universe, and they are all so far away from the earth that we will be very close to observe them in the future. But in fact, there are not many black holes in the universe. Take the Milky way for example, scientists estimate that there may be hundreds of millions of black holes. Although there are so many black holes in the galaxy, we can’t observe them until they devour matter and form an obvious accretion disk.
Most of the medium and small mass black holes have weak phagocytic ability, and there may be no matter around them, so they can’t form a bright accretion disk and have been hidden in the universe. Only those supermassive black holes, such as the black hole a * in the center of the Milky Way galaxy, have strong gravity and wide range of influence, and can constantly devour the surrounding celestial matter and form a bright accretion disk The accretion disk, and then we observed it.
Therefore, although there are many black holes in the galaxy, only a few of them can be observed and found. They are all very far away from the earth. With the development speed of human science and technology, it may be necessary to fly faster than light to reach them. If we want to study and explore black holes and thoroughly understand their nature and function, we must be close to black holes and collect observation data.
There may also be some small black holes near the solar system, which can not be found by human science and technology now. We can only wait for human science and technology to go further in the future. With more advanced technology and tools for detecting black holes, we believe that at that time we will be able to find a lot of medium and small mass black holes in the galaxy, and then we will be able to get close to black holes closer to the earth Research and exploration may uncover the mystery of black holes. We are looking forward to this day.
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